s at numerous major themes in line to the traditional Latin American Left, including the understanding whether the Latin American public opinion which changed leftwards in the early 2000s. Other areas looked at include reasons for the win by the Left in some countries and failure in others, and how the left shift impacted the market economies, social welfare, citizenship rights, and popular political participation.
The leftist movement roots emerged from Venezuela elections in 1998 when Lieutenant Colonel Hugo Chavez was elected. The newly created movement gained momentum and power1 with the election of the Brazilian Union leader in 2002, Luiz Inancio Lula da Silva, and the election of Tabare Vazquez in 2004 (Uruguay)1. Sebastian Pinera was the first conservative candidate to win in the 2010 presidential election in Chile. After this win, it was evident that Argentina and Peru would soon follow and move to the leftist. The leftward tilt in the region reached its peak in 2005 when the Bolivian Evo Morales was elected, the election of Nicaraguan guerrilla leader Daniel Ortega. In the 1990s, Latin America was characterized by left-wing elected politicians or populist platforms that opted for neoliberal policies upon inauguration. The left turn is, therefore, a combination of two connected factors: the left-wing aspiring presidential candidates and the choices of policies the presidents made once elected. The 2000s world economy boom reduced the need for the states in the region to go for external funding. The external funding is known to come with policy conditionalities. The presidents were, as a result, free to implement domestic policies. This meant that the presidents who took their campaigns on the left were empowered to implement their policies due to reduced external funding. This was directly opposite to what happened in the 1990s when the presidential candidates had funding constraints. In 2003, the Latin America experienced a historical change in terms of