Firstly, Creswell aligns his philosophies with empiricism. This is whereby in research approaches, one deals with complete truths, where explanation of these complete truths can be through quantitative methods (Creswell, 2009). In addition, empiricism application is possible in to qualitative exploration. From the name, quantitative approaches often deal with manipulation of numerical data.
Additionally, Creswell uses Interpretism in alignment of the research design. This closely aligns with constructivism. In addition, it seems to align with qualitative research design, where it may also apply in mixed methods approach. It also incorporates personal or subjective value into findings. This further makes inferences and interpretations on data be with ease. For this reason, it tends to examine personal or subjective meanings.
In conclusion, Creswell articulately discusses tendencies for specific types of exploration and their relation to methods and approaches in research approaches. Although the lines he uses do not acts as binding limits for research design. They act as guideline that suggests common tendencies for research approaches. Creswell helps people understand the improbabilities on scientists and their inventions as they begin research prior to the commitment of ontology. Naturally, the research designs used by most scientists often contribute to the appropriate research approach.