Budgetary transformation has been one of the leading factors. The International Olympics Committee’s (IOC) budget during the early half period of the 20th century was quite meagre. The then president of IOC, Avery Brundage was quite aggressive in his approach not to allow commercial stakes to play a role in Olympic Games. A shift in approach was seen in 1980 when Juan Antonio Samaranch was president of the IOC, as he wanted to bring about a change for making the IOC monetarily strong. The Olympic Program (TOP) was initiated by Samaranch in 1985. Still TOP membership fee is quite high, to the tune of US$50 million for a period of 4 years (Buchanon & Mallon, 2006). Coubertin was against making IOC a commercial organisation, as he defined Olympism “not a system but a state of mind...created by the cultivation of both effort and eurhythmy...the basis of absolute virility,” as cited by (Buchanon & Mallon, 2006, Introduction ci.).
Politics has interfered in Olympics different ways. Take for example the holding of 1936 Olympics at Berlin, facing large scale boycott to raise voice against Nazism although the movement could not succeed. Racism was widely prevalent in American society at that time, as the African American Jesse Owens had to live in a racist environment even after winning four gold medals in track.
The 1968 Olympics faced demonstrations from black athletes, inspired by the civil rights and black power movements.