The office would also coordinate interagency for national estimates.2 Following the passage of the National Security Act in 1947, several variations in the Executive were legislated. Among the establishments effected by the Act was independent Air Force, National Security Council (NSC), the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and Secretary of Defense. The CIG was transformed into the Central Intelligence Agency, after the Act had officially permitted it to become an independent department.3 The functions of CIG were not altered by the Act. Even though, loosely defined, new additional duties were created for CIA. A plan to define CIA’s duties in specific terms would have lead to creation of tension following the full of unification of services of other security organs.4 CIA was therefore mandated to collecting information about foreign governments, corporations and individuals and also to advise public policy makers.5 On the other hand, the National Security Council was created by the National Security Act passed in 1947. It was amended in 1949 by the National Security Act Amendments. Through the part of the Reorganization Plan of 1949 the Council was transferred to the Executive office of the President.6 Therefore, the Council serves as the principle forum when it comes to the President’s consideration on matters of security and foreign policy. Apart from the president, other members of the Council are his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials.7 The major duties of NSC have been to appropriately advise and assist the President on matters pertaining to national security as well as foreign policies. Through NSC, the President is able to coordinate the policies among the government agencies that are concerned. Such agencies include the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Army, the Secretary of Navy, the Secretary Air Force and the chairperson of the National Security Resources Board (Borene, 2010 p. 35). The Joint Chiefs of Staff’ formation was as a result of the Arcadia Conference in which the United States and Great Britain agreed to establish the combined JCS to look into the war effort on behalf of the two countries. The composition of the combined JRC included senior members in the armed forces of the two countries. Through the passage of the National Security Act, the JCS was formally established and its functions redefined.8 Despite the Act’s provisions clearly preventing the Chiefs from commanding forces, the chiefs had consistently continued to exercise executive authority in originating contact with combat commanders. This uncertainty prompted the congress to amend the Act in 1953 to deter the chiefs from such contacts with field commanders.9 The JCS of the United States is currently constituted by a six member committee. The members are; a chairperson, vice-chairperson, and the chiefs from each of the four branches of the military. The chief of each military branch through the assistance of the vice-chairperson serves as a manager of his military branch. Meetings of JCS are conducted by the chairperson. The main duty of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is to advise the President, the National Security Council and the Secretary of Defense on issues of military affairs.10 How the Structure of Various Security Organs Have Limited the US Action in Iraq and Afghanistan The Washington’
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SECURITY ORGANS IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Instructor Course Date Establishment and Functions of the Major Security Organs in the United States The three major security organs in US include the Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Council and Joint Chief of Staff…
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