In order to analyse the change of management in Xerox, it is necessary to adopt many management theories to analyse friction by friction. PEST analysis, comprising of Political, Economical, sociocultural and technological factors, according to which the marketing environment is made up of three aspects, internal environment, micro environment, macro environment etc. The internal environment consists of staff that is also called internal customers, office technology, wages and finance etc. Micro environment is external customers, agents and distributors, suppliers, out competitors etc. Macro environment consists of Political and legal forces, economic forces, sociocultural forces and technological forces etc. PEST is concerned only with the Macro Environment, which is concerned with the production of the company.
"The first is efficiency in the production of a given set of outputs. That is, with a given capital stock a given technology and a given set of resource prices, firms should be producing goods and services with a minimum expenditure of the economy's resources," (Cyert, 1988, p.36).
Xerox had to overcome many problems while going through Change Management. It could not compete with the Japanese competitors because of high manufacturing cost. Internal culture and leadership suffered due to mindsets bordering towards complacent inertia. But later, leadership went through an immense transformation that led to the present enviable state of the company. It improved the quality of its products and the organisation turned the corner. In 1990s, Xerox introduced digital photocopiers, high-end laser printers with attached scanners and these products made Xerox march ahead of its competitors in this mercurial field.
"Xerox worked to turn its product into a service, providing a complete "document service" to companies including supply, maintenance, configuration and user support."
Xerox created excellent name for itself in the employment front as well. Company received 100% rating on the first Corporate Equality Index from the Human Rights Campaign in 2002.
"They have maintained this rating in 2003, 2004, 2005. Xerox has been recognized by a number of other organizations for its diversity leadership as well." Ibid.
As far as the political factors are concerned, the political scenario has a very large influence on business. It depends on the stability of the political environment, how could the tax regulation going to affect the company, what could be the Government's stand in marketing ethics, government's economic and industrial policy etc. It also depends on its religious or secular policies and if they are religion oriented enough to disturb other cultures or if there are any regional or international agreements and compulsions. Xerox did not face many problems due to political problems in home country, but it must have faced problems in other countries like Asian Specific countries, and to some extent, in India.
"But, according to a recent article (Cordtz, 1974, "Xerox is moving into an awkward agethe company resembles a muscular adolescent who has grown so fast that he finds it difficult to coordinate his newly acquired strength" (page 117)" (Burke, 1977, p.22).
In economic factors deal with market trends, economic predictions, theories of long and short term both, international market trend, any upcoming national and