The GPS IIF is the expanded version of GPS IIR (M) which will be consisting of 12 satellites altogether the third of which is launched in the current year. Another series of GPS Block III is under development process which would be able to give more powerful signals and better (PNT). The Global Positioning System provides information related to time and location. It is a satellite navigation system which works well in all weather conditions on and close to the earth (Global Positioning System). It is owned and maintained by the United States of America and serves in the PNT i.e. positioning, navigation and timing. GPS has played vital role in modernizing the Air Traffic System and it has benefitted the military, army, civil and commercial users all around the world. The whole system is basically divided into three major segments including Space segment, Control segment and User segment. The first two are developed and operated by the US Air Force (GPS overview). The space segment consists of a group of satellites which form a particular shape in the space and transmit radio signals to the users. At least 24 satellites are available in the space 95% of the time (Space segment). The control segment represents all the ground facilities that monitor the satellites, analyze their data and keep a check on their performance (control segment). The user segment is used to calculate the user’s three dimensional position and time by GPS receiver equipment which receives the information from the satellites and transmit it to the GPS receiver device (user segment). HISTORICAL CONTEXT GPS was developed by the US Department of Defense (DoD) and started its operations in 1994. The previous navigation systems had some limitations and drawbacks which actually gave rise to the creation of GPS. The project was developed in 1973 by the unification of ideas from the previously working navigation systems (National Research Council U.S.). Originally it ran with 24 satellites. The first experimental GPS I satellite was launched in 1978 and by 1985 ten more satellites were launched. GPS was widely used in the Gulf War of 1990-91 (The Global Positioning System: Assessing National Policies ). In 1993, GPS had the initial operational capability (IOC) and was proving the Standard Positioning Service (SPS). In 1995, full operational capability was declared to the GPS since Precise Positioning Service was fully available. GPS III was launched in 1998 later in 2005 the modernized version of GPS was launched with civilian signal (L2C). In 2010, software incompatibility was caused because of the ground control system (ELLIOTT). On October 12, 2012 the GPS IIF-3 was launched. Satellite Orbits Each satellite completes the circle of the earth in 12 hours i.e. twice in a day. It flies in the middle Earth orbit (MEO). The satellites are arranged in 24-slot arrangement in a way that they can be viewed from anywhere on the earth. Normally 24 satellites keep on flying in the space monitored by the Air Force. In 2011, the 24-slot arrangement was modified to 27-slot arrangement which increased the coverage efficiency of GPS (Space segment). Applications of GPS There are various applications of GPS in the civil and military sectors. Apart from them it is also used in hundreds of apps in cell phones, wristwatches, shipping containers and ATM’s hence it has become an important part of the space infrastructure.
A paper "The History and the Future of GPS" reports that GPS started its operations in 1994 since then it has been modified on a continuous basis. The GPS IIF is the expanded version of GPS IIR which will be consisting of 12 satellites altogether the third of which is launched…
The history importance and the future of genetics is being studied through various scientific methods with an aim of determining the origin of life, the existence of living organisms and the likely future changes in the population especially the abilities which is exhibited in the abilities to survive in the environment.
Under these social networks, the people who are a part of them, get linked with each other, virtually. In this virtual world users share themselves with others and this helps them in gaining social acceptability and recognition. They may share backgrounds, interests and habits online.
In the column 1 of chart the design attribute are given, while column two gives key design features and sub-features that should be consider during design process. The 3rd column gives the expected likelihoods.
A technology that was invented in 1978 which today has become an integral application that illustrated advances in the telecommunication industry is the global positioning system (GPS). This paper discusses the impact GPS technology in the
The industry as a whole is revolutionized due to the advancements in this technology.
Real Time Kinematic technique or RTK is a GPS mode that is broadly employed for accurate positioning applications. It was invented in 1990’s. It has several
m was initially planned for military applications, however in the 1980s, the administration of US made the system accessible for civilian utilization. Moreover, the global positioning system operates in any weather state, anywhere in the globe, 24 hours a day. Also, there are no
2. Stations on Earth that are meant for controlling the revolving satellites, known as the control segment. They fundamentally function to make the satellites continue to revolve in their original orbits.
It is used to know about the positioning, navigation and time (PNT). GPS started its operations in 1994 since then it has been modified on continuous basis. The GPS IIF is the expanded version of GPS IIR (M) which will be