An official curriculum is a written guide from the learner’s perspective clearly describing a designed plan to make both teaching and learning more effective. In education, an official curriculum provides a basis for accountability; it is a framework outlining the specific procedure and plan to be used in the teaching of the content. As a student, you will often notice that different courses have different instructions and resources that can be used to achieve the course objectives that not only state what is expected of the student, but also what is expected of the teacher. Operational curriculum is defined as what is taught by the teacher and how it is communicated (Posner, 2003). An operational curriculum states what students are required to learn in a specific subject, and the knowledge and skills they are to acquire from a particular subject. Operational curriculum helps to gauge how well a student understands the content by relating what is taught in class and the specific learning outcomes for the student. For example, the instructional content of mathematics is taught and communicated differently at different grades to ensure the concepts like multiplication and addition are understood proficiently. The hidden curriculum includes the norms and values of the surrounding society (Posner, 2003). The community most often demands that a school curriculum should be able to promote the right values, and as much as the school educational curriculum may be perceived suitable for children in terms of promoting such values, children might be vulnerable to few elements within the society which might pervert the educational process. For this reason, the hidden curriculum...
This paper approves that an official curriculum provides a basis for accountability; it is a framework outlining the specific procedure and plan to be used in the teaching of the content. As a student, you will often notice that different courses have different instructions and resources that can be used to achieve the course objectives that not only state what is expected of the student, but also what is expected of the teacher.
This paper makes a conclusion that the structure of the disciplines that has been promoted by Jerrold Zacharias, a scientist who for a long time had been attempting to improve the physics curriculum and saw this perspective as an avenue for incorporating modern physics into it. He is of the opinion of teaching only the most fundamental concepts and at the same time teaching students how to derive the rest of the knowledge from the same concept; and in the process of learning a lot of things can be applied practically and less of theory which will just remain in the mind.
The Cognitive Perspective has its promoters in science such as Piaget who spent a lot of time trying to understand how children’s minds work and how different their thinking was from that of adults and how it was that they got to “learn” things that were abstract in nature. He shows how children need to be ready for the cognitive learning process to take place.
Behavioral Perspective has been promoted by Edward Thorndike, the founder of behavioral psychology. He provided the necessary scientific theory for behavior through his works on behavioral objectives, in Arithmetic he was able to contribute greatly into the creation of a behavioral curriculum.