Moreover Daughtry (62) explains that momentum is directly related to emotional power and can either be positive or negative. However, in a battle of two, positive momentum is gained by only one party while the other party experiences negative momentum. Music and other sounds may be used to initiate the negative momentum. As outlined by Turino (221), emotional power of music often results to two impacts. It can either be positive or negative depending on the situation in which music is employed. Negative momentum may also result from the internal among the team members ore the players in the field. External negative momentum is generally initiated by the opponents especially when they are able to initiate morale and motivate their players. This is usually experienced by musical instruments, songs, chats and songs that are mainly meant to discourage or mock the opponents. This was evident especially during the time when racial discrimination was on its peak in the United States of America. It was evident that the society was much divided such that the blacks were supporting blacks while the whites also played alone. Internal negative momentum can arise from the internal activities by the players themselves. For example, when the actions by one or two members of the team are not pleasing to the other members of the team, there is loss of moral as well as reduction in the play. According to Turino (222), this result into a condition of hopelessness and the players feel that they no longer own the play. Later a pessimistic attitude change develops and the individuals begin to think of losing the game rather than winning the game. At this time, the players experiencing negative attitudes towards each other in the game and what remains are to wait for the game...
The analysis of the academic texts by Adler and Marvin, Turino and Daughtry
Turino, Thomas’ Signs of Imagination, Identity, and experience: A Pircian Semiotic theory for music is an exploration of the emotional power of music in the activities of individuals, families and communities. This article also illustrates the intimate interfaces of sound structures, identity and social structures as well as incorporating the views of other scholars. Adler and Marvin’s Momentum: A Theory of Social Action explores the idea of momentum development in sports and the several ways by which individuals and teams can develop or gain momentum. Alder and Marvin have also discussed the impacts of positive and negative momentum in a team’s performance. Daughtry’s Russia’s New Anthem and the Negotiation of National Identity has outlined how music derives self image. In this article, Daughtry discusses several case studies in which music reflects national image and identity of a nation. In sporting activities, it is usually common to listen to most sport analysts from different categories of the games puts more emphasis on fans contributing to the performance of a team. It is a common knowledge that a team that has many fans is likely to win in a game.
Generally, understanding of the theory and the actual sports experiences reveal that momentum is very important in all the games. However caution should be taken to ensure that the generated momentum is not negative since negative momentum is destructive and results to feeling of uselessness and lost of hope in the game.