aware of the need for the creation and development of an instrument that would enable the measurement of the extent to which andragogical assumptions and principles are actually being employed in instructional settings.
The authors begin with a brief and exhaustive introduction to the concept of andragogy, right from its inception in the 1800s until the modern synthesis of the concept by Malcolm Knowles in the 2000s. According to the authors, andragogy has been criticized as it "lacks the fundamental characteristics of a science because of the limited empirical evidence produced" (Taylor & Kroth 2). They therefore seek to examine the three areas of andragogy, namely – its Concept & History, its Assumptions, and its Criticisms, to establish the foundation for the "creation of an instrument to provide measurable data on the assumptions put forth by Malcolm Knowles" (Taylor & Kroth 2). Taylor and Kroth performed an integrative review of literature on seminal books on both andragogy and pedagogy. They then carried out a cross-referencing of the bibliographies of the reviewed literature. They also carried out a review of dissertations and published articles on the subject, through which the foundation for the creation of the proposed "instrument" was laid. The authors assert that the review of literature revealed a lack of a testable model for andragogical assumptions, and so, there is an urgent need for a "measurable instrument".
Taylor and Kroth summarize Knowles six assumptions of andragogy, namely – self-concept, experience, readiness to learn, orientation to learn, motivation to learn and the need to know. These assumptions govern the principles of andragogy. However, andragogy by itself is not a science, and empirical studies on the subject are lacking. Taylor and Kroth list out four major obstacles that limit the possibility of testing andragogy to produce empirical evidence. Accordingly, the first major obstacle is the ambiguity of whether andragogy is "a ...Show more