Shallow and understandable language was in application, no experimentations, no confirmation tests, just a mention of few examples relating to the topic. Ideally, the reference to a lemon as an acid and ash as a base was the only regard to the topic. Moreover, the pupils had no questions to the topic and the teachers barely explained further details on the topic.
In the secondary school level, much advancement came in defining the chemical terms, detailed examples, applications, experimentations, confirmation tests, and reactions that demonstrate the topic. Indeed, there were chemical definitions of acid, bases, and salts. These definitions were reliant on certain concepts and theories that establish the loss or gain of hydrogen ions in dissolving compounds. At this level, the confirmation tests like the litmus test were in application, more examples like hydrochloric acid, ammonia as a base, and ammonium chloride as a salt were present, and much emphasis came to being. The use of a pH indicator to ascertain acidity or basicity was relevant at this level. Actually, the teachers would offer many experiments in light of putting emphasis on this topic. Additionally, the students had varied questions on this topic that the teachers answered and significantly classified acids, bases, and salts. In fact, the teachers introduced the idea of balancing and representing such reactions in chemical equations. Moreover, the issue of chemical reactions that manifest this topic was dominant at this level of education and the results of such equations representing chemical reactions were either acidic , basic, or neutral compounds (Roanoke Valley Governors School, n.y, p.1). The concept of water dissociation and neutralization that rose from the reaction between an acidic compound and a basic compound largely featured in this context.
HNO3 (aq) + NaOH (aq) -H2O (l) + NaNO3 (aq) was such a ...Show more