Ferguson – The Supreme Court found the policy of separate, but equal. This meant that there could be separate facilities for blacks and whites as long there were equal facilities (busses for whites, busses for blacks) (Aleinikoff, 1992).
1948 – Shelly v…
Ferguson. This case declared that laws which created separate, but equal schools for black and white students, unconstitutional (McBride, 2006).
1964 - Civil Rights Act – This is legislation that outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin. It ended racial segregation in schools, in the workplace and in facilities (Whalen, 1985).
1971 – Sawnn v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education – The court ruled that when finding ways to handle the issue of illegal segregation in schools assigning students to bussing was legal (Mickelson, 2001, p. 215-252).
2003 – Grutter v. Bollinger – This case upheld affirmative action in education as long as there was a “highly individualized, holistic review of each applicant’s file” and in which race was not considered (Cornell University Law School, n.d.).
The consequences of each of these cases eventually lead to total desegregation in the United States. As the timeline shows, with each case, the laws became more and more open to equality among the races. In terms of schools and children, there is now no desegregation and schools are racially diverse as well as the transportation to those schools. Students from any race are allowed to attend their public neighborhood school without issue thanks to the people who pursued these cases.
Epstein, L., & Knight, J. (2001). Piercing the veil: William j. brennans account of regents of the university of california v. bakke. Yale Law & Policy Review, 19(2), 341-379. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40239568
Mickelson, R. A. (2001). Subverting swann: First and second generation segregation in the charlotte-mecklenburg schools. American Educational Research Journal, 38(2), 215-252. ...
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