DSM-IV criteria describes the ASDs in children aged 3 years and older however, the emphasis is now given on characterizing the symptoms before three years as developmental abnormalities occur at a very young age and early intervention can also provide a good prognosis for ASD children. ASD leads to impairments in three functional spheres of influence: communication skills, both verbal and non-verbal, socialization and a deficiency of behavioral flexibility, making the child rely on routines. Autism is considered as the most prevalent among the severe developmental disorders. Classic autism was first described by Leo Lanner in 1943 and according to a 2007 report, it is estimated to occur in approximately 1 in 1000 individuals and ASD occurs in 1 in 150 individuals. Prevalence in Canada is estimated to be two per 1000 for autism and six per 1000 for the whole of the ASDs (Bryson et al 2004; Benson & Haith 2009). As mentioned earlier, the developmental abnormalities start manifesting at a very young age even before 3 years of age. Furthermore studies have provided evidence that early intervention can optimize the outcomes for the children affected with autism. Hence, early diagnosis by detecting the early signs and symptoms in the autistic children can aid early intervention and good prognosis. Before proceeding towards the symptoms and early signs of autism, it would be resourceful to overview the etiology of ASD. No singular cause can be pointed out however; the most common and popularly accepted cause is brain abnormalities and genetic etiology. Moreover, it should be made clear over here that autism is not a psychological disorder brought about by poor parenting or childhood years. One important etiological factor is the hereditary origin of autism. Cluster of unstable genes leading to brain abnormalities is also another explanation for the etiology of autism. Some other current theories which are under investigation include toxin ingestion during pregnancy and environmental factors such as viruses (Evans & Daniels 2006). A male predomination is observed at a ratio of four to one. In monozygotic twins there is a high concordance rate around 90%. In children with pre-existing genetic disorders such as Fragile X syndrome, phenylketonuria, tuberous sclerosis, Angleman’s syndrome and Cornelia de Lange syndrome, autistic symptoms can be manifested (Benson & Haith 2009). The overview of ASD etiology exhibits genetic causes and hereditary co-relation as the main factors leading to the developmental abnormalities in the children. The core symptoms that manifest during the first two years of life represent the abnormalities in the social, communicative and cognitive developmental skills of the child. Any abnormality in the normal development of one functional domain also leads to negative outcome on the others as well. The social abnormalities of the autistic child exhibit themselves in categories of attachment, social imitation, joint attention, orientation to social stimuli, face perception, emotion perception and expression and symbolic play. Children with autism exhibit disoriented relationships with their mothers. In autistic children the social behavior of looking at faces develops late at 12 months as compared to normal development at birth. Social behaviors such as following person’
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Autism Symptoms and Early Signs Name University Autism Symptoms and Early Signs Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) includes “a class of neurodevelopment disorders that are characterized by qualitative impairments in the development of social and communication skills, often accompanied by stereotyped and restricted patterns of interests and behavior, with onset of impairment before 3 years of age” (Landa 2008)…
To be able to successfully diagnose the condition psychiatrist say that it is necessary for the symptoms to be evident before the age of three. Autism prevents the brain from functioning in a normal way and to its actual capacity due to this neurologic disorder, which eventually hinders the growth of a person’s mutual and reciprocal interacting and communicating skills.
In the clinical practice, the word autism spectrum disorder abbreviated as ASD and it is always used jointly to refer to autism, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-NOS. Communication uniqueness that is the diagnostic of autism is recapitulated, with deliberation of the overlap amid social and communication problem, predominantly for children with autism performance at the prelinguistic stage.
According to the paper individuals get extremely confused when they think about autism, as they perceive it to be a childhood disorder. An invasive disorder influences social and communication skills and to some extent affects motor and language skills. A wide-ranging diagnosis can include children with mental retardation and high IQ and people with extreme traits in their personality.
Weaver and Hersey (2005) report that at least 1.5 million children and adults have been diagnosed with Autism in America as estimated by the The Spectrum Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), also known as Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) along with the developmental disorders that fall under its umbrella are disorders are characterized by deficits in social and communication skills.
Autism is not an absolute lack of desire for affiliation, but a relative one. Researchers and psychologists try to define, explain and characterize autism and an autistic child using different theories and methods. The most popular theories are (1) "the theory of mind", (2) the central coherence theory, (3) the extreme male brain theory, (4) the mindblidness theory and (5) the executive dysfunction theory.
Though it is also been determined that none of them is proved to be the major cause of Autism.
Autism is described clinically as an invasive developmental disorder, with cardinal symptoms of poor social relations, poor communicative capabilities, and a restricted range of interests and activities.
What is interesting is that the person with autism is in a level where there is very minimal knowledge of the concept of personal identity (Sicile-Kira, 2004).
Based on McClannahan (1999) autism normally can be seen among young people as early as age three (3).
The paper will also look at how to treat children with autism. Autism is a disorder in which the development of the brain is affected, predominantly in the areas of communication and social interaction. Typically the first signs of this disorder would appear before age 3.
Symptoms of autism are generally noticeable to the trained eye before a child’s third birthday but the disorder usually remains undiagnosed until or after that age. The level of autistic severity varies. Some afflicted persons require constant and extensive assistance in virtually all facets of their lives but others have the ability to perform at a much higher level. Some, with adequate and early therapy, are able to attend regular classes in school and secure avenues of employment afterwards albeit somewhat limited.