The learning theories and frameworks can in another way be termed as the philosophical or conceptual orientations that seek to explain the ways of human learning. One of the popular and applicable theories of teaching English is known as the Behaviourist Theory, and was influenced European empiricism around 1914. In this theory, [English] writing, which includes both writing and speaking, occurs as a response to environmental stimuli (Harasim, 2012, p. 13). This means that it can be observed, described, and manipulated. As an English instructor, one can apply this theory in ensuring effective learning is achieved. In explanation, teaching can be perceived of as a process that involves practice, repetition, and rewards. In practice, the instructor should ensure that the teaching they give is put to use such as in writing compositions or oral reading. In repetition, learning can be effected by going over what is being taught over and over again. Finally, rewards should be applied by methods such as testing what has already been taught. These tests determine the level of learning that has been influenced.
The second effective learning/teaching framework in an ESOL language is defined by the Cognitive Theory. This theory has been applied in this context since the 1950s. In its application, the Cognitive Theory defines learning as complex and deep psychological phenomena such as schemas (organized patterns of thought or behaviour), processes for learning, and motivation. In short, English learning can be effectively taught through phases occurring with gradual complexity. In a good way, linguistic learners learn English from playing an active role in the process as well as making their own mistakes. In applying such, memory and problem-solving skills are put into consideration. Instructors apply this theory by subdividing it into three variables, namely ...Show more