Some of the causes include infections, injuries, lack of glasses, trauma, etc. Blind students are also taught using various technologies, including Braille and assistive computer technology. These technologies enable students to read and listen to lecture notes, presentations, course materials and other reading materials.
Causes of blindness depend on the socioeconomic conditions to which a person is exposed. They include causes that affect the eye directly and those that affect visual processing centres like the brain. In developed economies, the primary causes of blindness include macular degeneration, traumatic injuries and ocular diabetes complications. In developing and underdeveloped nations blindness is caused primarily by infections, glaucoma, lack of glasses, injury, and cataracts. Some of the infections that lead to blindness in underdeveloped countries include onchocerciasis (river blindness), leprosy and trachoma. The herpes simplex is the most common cause of blindness in developed countries. There are also other causes of blindness such as retinopathy, deficiency of vitamin A, diseases affective the retina or optic nerve e.g. stroke, inflammation, eye malignancies, abnormalities of the congenital, hereditary eye diseases, and chemical poisoning. According to Bourne et al (2013), cataracts and macular degeneration are the leading causes of blindness. Cataracts affect people from developing and underdeveloped world while macular degeneration mainly affects people from developed countries.
Blindness can also be caused by amblyopia, or the lazy eye. This refers to the condition in which a child is born with poorer vision in one eye than the other (NIH Medline Plus, 2015). Untreated amblyopia leads to vision loss and blindness. As the child grows, the brain ignores images from the affected eye, leading to loss of vision in that eye as the child enters teenage stage of life. The condition starts when one of the child’s eyes develops a ...Show more