The learner does not frequently understand what he or she is reading. Confusing mathematical symbols plus numbers. Awkward pencil grasp and pitiable handwriting skills. Trouble observing multiple directions, organizing thoughts along with what they want to speak. Communication disorders Problems associated with speech, language as well as auditory processing. They range from uncomplicated sound repetitions like stuttering to sporadic misarticulation of terms, to absolute inability to utilize speech plus language for communications, or aphasia (Haynes, Moran, & Pindzola, 2011). The basis of communication disorders comprises hearing loss, neurological disorders, or brain injury. Others include mental retardation, history of drug abuse, emotional and psychiatric disorders, physical impairments like palate, and developmental disorders Characteristics includes: Difficulty in observing directions, attending to conversations, and articulating words. Difficulty in understanding the perception of what has been said and expressing oneself. Do not observe social rules of conversation. Difficulty in using verbs. Difficulty comprehending jokes or sarcasm (National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, 2012). Teaching strategies for learning disabilities It is important to begin by defining specific expectations with the learner first. Provide instantaneous reinforcement of accurate responses. Apply various modalities, like oral presentation, overheads, diagrams, and activity-based learning. Apply direct teaching methodology, such as phonics, or pronouncing words simultaneously. Use alternative evaluation methods, like an oral test, closed book test having dissimilar requirements for answers, and taped tests. Negotiate written assignments (Martin, 2008). Teaching strategies for communication disorders First understand what form of communication disorder the student has. Show consideration in terms of patience and acceptance Support speech practice through one-on-one conversations about their interests. Never mimic those with a speech disorder. Create practicing verbal skills sessions involving pairs of students as they read aloud, and working on problems orally, or otherwise play games which encourage speech development (National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, 2012). Placement options for learning disabilities Learners with learning disabilities should be educated under least restrictive environment, with the flexible setup to meet the learner individual needs. This includes: General education class having aids and modifications. State special schools. General education class having specialist services, or residential program. Placement options for communication disorders Focus on classroom interactions, language and communications applied, so as to help students learn to communicate in these environments. Apply unambiguous language, as well as communication planning within a non-deliberate language application. For instance, unconscious selection of language is significant features of school and class environments (Haynes, Moran, & Pindzola, 2011).