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Power Factor Investigation - Assignment Example

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Power Factor Investigation

This makes it necessary to use suitable means to correct the power factor. This paper examines the use of the synchronous motor for power factor correction. There are several ways of defining power factor depending on the context of study. However, all the definitions come from the understanding that electrical power manifests in three ways. These are real power denoted as P (also known as true power or active power), reactive power denoted as Q, and apparent power denoted as |S| (Singh, 2008). Apparent power is the magnitude of complex power denote as “S” which is the vector sum of real power and reactive power (Singh, 2008). Each of the three manifestations of power has a different measure. The unit of measurement of real power is in watts (W) that of apparent power is Voltage-Amperes (VA), while that of apparent power is in Reactive-Volt-Amperes (VAR) (Meier, 2006). The ratio obtained by comparing real power to apparent power is the power factor. ...
Therefore, the power factor is unity. However, there are cases when the voltage leads or lags the current. The cause for this is when the circuit has an inductive load such as a motor. The motor stores power in its coils, reducing the actual power (real power) available to drive it. The total power supplied to the motor in this case represents the apparent power, obtained by multiplying the voltage and the current (VA). If there is a difference between the supplied power (apparent power) and the power in use (real power), then the power factor reduces to a value less than unity. Depending on its severity, it may require correction (Singh, 2008). The theoretical framework governing the operation of motors includes Fleming’s right hand rule and faradays laws of electromagnetism. When the thumb, the index, and the middle finger are at right angles, Fleming’s right hand rule describes the direction of the thrust by the thumb; the index finger shows direction of the electromagnetic field, while the middle finger shows the direction of the current. Faradays laws on the other hand state as follows, there is an EMF induced in a coil whenever the flux through the coil changes with time. The magnitude of induced EMF is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux and thirdly, the direction of the EMF is such as to oppose the change in flux. Electricity distribution companies provide power as apparent power but it bills customers based on the real power they consume. Therefore, a low power factor makes power more expensive to the consumer with increasing severity as power factor drops. This is why it is important to invest in equipment for power factor correction. Motors tend to be the largest loads in electric ...Show more

Summary

Synchronous Motor for Power Factor Correction Power factor correction is vital for industries and other power consumers with large inductive loads. It is also beneficial to power utility providers…
Author : santinaschamber
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