Introduction Lung cancer is a disease in which a primary cancer develops in the tissues of the lungs and these tissues take in oxygen and release Carbon Dioxide (CO2). More people die of lung cancer than any other forms of cancer such as breast cancer or throat cancer (Michael Sarg)…
Dr. Oscar Auerbach and his colleagues conducted a research (stretched over eight years) to investigate the link between lung cancer and smoking. 1500 male and female patients of lung cancer were studied and 100,000 slides of lung tissues were taken from their bodies. The degree of cancer cells was more in patients who were smokers as compared to those who were not. The research’s findings were that the degree of cell damage was directly related to the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Dr. Auerbach’s researched data contributed to the Surgeon General’s report which was published in 1964 (Adams). After that time period it was very common to associate lung cancer with smoking. Causes Studies targeted at deriving a relationship between cigarettes and lung cancer started in 1948 at Washington University’s School of Medicine and a student named Ernst Wynder tried connecting the dots. He did a research in 1950 that involved 649 lung cancer patients and 600 controls. Wynder discovered that the rate of lung cancer was 40 times higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. Richard Doll was a British scientist who discovered (in the same year) evidence supporting the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Doll researched on physicians, both who smoked and did not smoked and waited for years to see if any of them developed lung cancer. Undoubtedly the ones to who did develop lung cancer were smokers (Johnson). There were a total of 158,900 deaths in the USA in 1999 because of lung cancer and this figure included men and women both. The death toll for lung cancer patients in 1999 world over was 1 billion. But lung cancer was not this common in the 1800s and it was rare. In 1929, a German physician named Fritz Lickint pointed out in his report that lung cancer patients were majorly smokers and he was so disturbed by his findings that he started an anti-tobacco movement in Germany to discourage smoking (Witschi). Before 1996, studies on causes of lung cancer derived a relationship between lung cancer and smoking but the causes of lung cancer were not narrowed down to the cellular level. In 1996, Dr. Moonshong Tang and Dr. Gerd Pfeiffer explained how smoking affects cells and causes cancer. Both the doctors explained that cigarettes contain a chemical called benzo pyrene and it damages p53, a protein found in lung cells. This protein is exactly the same as the protein found in lung cancer patients. The function of p53 is that it controls the abnormal growth of cells which can result in tumors. Benzo pyrene damages p53 and the abnormal growth of cells cannot be controlled because of this (Adams). Specialists have worked on deriving a causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer. But epidemiological research has been done predominantly for deriving this relationship. Under epidemiological research, subjects are given the freedom of self-reporting their smoking habits and they do not have good memories as a result of which facts are under- or overstated. Smoking can cause other types of cancer as well: such as nasal cavity cancer, liver cancer and stomach cancer. Lung cancer can be caused by all forms of smoking such as cigarettes, cigars, pipes or bidis (tobacco wrapped in plant). When we say smoking causes cancer people generally assume that we are referring to active smoking. This is not plausible as lung cancer is also caused by passive smoking (Connie Henke Yarbro). Passive smoking is when non-smokers inhale ...
Cite this document
(“Lung Cancer Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/english/54073-why-smoking-causes-lung-cancer
(Lung Cancer Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
“Lung Cancer Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/english/54073-why-smoking-causes-lung-cancer.
The higher rates of cancer were reported to occur within the 85-mile industrial corridor that stretches from Baton Rouge to New Orleans and is indicated to be home to a quarter of the United States' petrochemical production. The essay hereby aims to determine the validity of the claim that research demonstrates higher rates of cancer in the stipulated area in Louisiana.
In accordance with cancer rates which were determined over the span of three years from 2003 to2005, it was revealed that more than 40% of the individuals born today will suffer from cancer at some point in their life. However, over the past two decades the incidence of cancer in both men and women has shown a decrease.
Under normal circumstances, human bodies have a system that balances and check on the growth of cell for purposes of ensuring that cells divide only to produce new units when they are needed. It therefore follows that any form of disruption of this body system that checks and balances cell growth culminate into proliferation and uncontrolled division of cells that form a tumor in the long run (Fraumeni and Muir, 2004).
somewhere in North America (Stop Smoking ABC, n.d.). It took until about 5,000 years later until the Mayans began to smoke and chew tobacco for the purpose of relieving their appetites while trekking through the jungle. Over the next few centuries, smoking tobacco became part of Mayan customs and rituals.
Lung cancer is usually associated with the elderly people due to its first metastasis process within the body (Roth, Cox & Hong 2). Study proves that the number of deaths in United States resulting from Lung cancer is greater than all the other types of cancers combined (Argiris, 118).
In 2012, the American cancer society estimated that over 226, 160 cases of cancer are anticipated by the end of the year and that 160, 340 deaths are expected to occur within the course of this year (5). The fatality of this disease has triggered a wide range of research to reveal the causes and predisposing factors of this disease as a core part of the fight against cancer in the world today.
In addition, the tumor also invades the healthy tissues around it. Primary lung cancers start off in the lung's tissues and are divided into two categories; small cell and non-small cell lung cancer. Although, it can be impossible at times to differentiate between metastatic lesion and primary lung cancer.
Environmental, or second-hand, tobacco smoke is also implicated in causing lung cancer. Beta-carotene which serves as an antioxidant help deactivate free radicals, unstable molecules that are the by-products of cells "burning" oxygen for energy when used by smokers increases the risk of lung cancer and when used by a non-smoker prevents heart diseases.
There are various causes for lung cancer and the number of deaths in the world occurring due to this disease is increasing. It appears in various phases and spreads rapidly. There are preventive measures and appropriate treatment available to cure this disease.
Cancer-related deaths are numerous worldwide. Among all types of cancer, lung cancer tops the list of cancer-related deaths. Cancer refers to the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. Lung cancer is, therefore, the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in both or one of the lungs. For cancer to be termed as lung cancer.
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Lung Cancer Essay for FREE!