Got a tricky question? Receive an answer from students like you! Try us!

Municipal Budgtes - Speech or Presentation Example

Only on StudentShare
Author : maxie73

Summary

Name Professor Name Class Date Municipal Budgets Allocation of resources in the public sector has given rise to the need for budgeting (Northern Ireland Assembly 4). Creation of a good budget is a forward looking process that links organizational goals with outcomes, while encouraging stakeholder dialogue (National Advisory Council on State and Local Budgeting [NACSLB] 3)…

Extract of sample
Municipal Budgtes

Main types are line – item and program budgets (NACSLB 37). Thus, neither budgeting method is perfect as each serves a different purpose: such as performance maximization or objective – activity alignment. A perfect budget should satisfy twelve principles. As indicated in the definition of the budget process, these principles are creation of goals based on stakeholder analysis, their implementation, including efficiency analysis and adjustments (NACSLB, 1999, p.5). The first type is line – item budget. This approach arose at the beginning of the 20th century (Tyer & Willand). It lists categories of expenses, such as “personnel, operating and capital expenses” (Tyer & Willand). Incremental approach belongs to this type as well. In this approach, previous year’s budget is adjusted for legislative changes, price, wage inflation and any other change that might take place in the new fiscal year (Northern Ireland Assembly 5). Since changes take place on a marginal basis in comparison to the last year’s levels, the base, this method is called incremental budgeting (Northern Ireland Assembly 5). This method saves time and resources. ...
Download paper

Related Essays

The Effectiveness of Internal Auditing in Saudi Arabian Local Government
Variables used to measure the efficiency include the competence of the staff in the audit department, the size of the department, the independence and autonomy of the audit department, the management support of the audit process, relationship of the internal practitioners with the internal auditors and eventually, the relationship between the audit council and the auditing department (Kamrava, 2010). …
15 pages (3765 words)
International commercial dispute resolution
.4 Dispute Management…6 How Detached Are The Arbitration Procedures From Municipal Laws.9 Theories and Examples That Support The Judiciary Nature Of Arbitration.13 Kerr LJ's Views On Arbitration With Respect To English Law …17 Conclusion….18 Refernces….20 Introduction International Commercial Dispute Resolution can be done by alternative resolution methods. Most often these are structured as dispute resolution methods, which are described using a third person and a result is found with this but this need not involve legal binding. Resolution will be met with the inflexibility of the…
16 pages (4016 words)
Green buildings
the LEED checklist. Local governments are also responsible to involve economists and modelers to ensure effectiveness of existing standards and achieve the desired goals which should be in line with cost-benefit analyses. Last but not least cities must consider the choice between the two types of buildings whilst ensuring that their green building ordinances could come-up with the desired changes in the environment. Reference: Schindler, S. 2010. Following Industry’s LEED®: Municipal Adoption of Private Green Building Standards. Florida Law Review 62, no. 2, 285-350, accessed June 7, 2011,…
3 pages (753 words)
State and local government finance: Massachusetts
The economy of Massachusetts is driven by the agricultural and the industrial sector. The major elements of the agricultural sector include nursery, vegetables, seafood, cranberries and dairy products. The various industries established in the state include tourism, scientific instruments, printing and publishing, electric and electronic equipment and machinery. Median Voter Theorem In relation to Massachusetts’s state and local government finance, Median Voter Theorem allows for representation of policy preferences as a point along a single dimension. Voters have a tendency to prefer a…
3 pages (753 words)
Financial Markets and Institutions
The derivative market can be further sub-divided into the OTC (over the counter) market and the exchange traded derivatives market. While the former is more customized and offers tailor made innovative instruments in the later all transactions take place via exchange. The OTC market transactions are done mainly by the investment banks that heir traders or agents to market derivative instruments to clients. Some instruments of OTC market include forward contract, swaps (interest rates and currency), credit derivatives, and hedge funds. The derivative market transactions in US are mostly…
5 pages (1255 words)
Finacal Analysis
and the sixth biggest metro area in the Southeastern part of the United States. In addition, when these figures totaled up, the Greater Orlando municipal is the 3rd largest metro expanse in the state of Florida. Orlando is ranked fifth among the population sizes in the state, and it is the state’s largest inland municipal area. The geography or layout of the city is mostly wetlands, comprising of many swamps and lakes such as Lake Apopka (Loschiavo, 2012). The landscape is generally flat and low lying making it fairly wet. The city seats on 101 sq miles (261.6 km?) land terrain. The city has…
5 pages (1255 words)
New York City Project Part 4
Similarly, the economic recovery of the city as reflected by the improved activities at Wall Street would enable the local government in attaining the projected revenue in the budget drawn (Hillman, 2009). Consequently, the ability of the New York City local government to deliver services to the population of the city is strong due to the availability of funds to finance the government operations. Indeed, the economic recovery within the city saw the revenue collection forecast for the fiscal year of 2012 exceeding by $2.4 billions that will be useful in closing the financial gap of 2013…
4 pages (1004 words)