The macro risk factors can be political, economical, social and technological factors called PEST analysis. The macro economic variables generating macro risks are price indexes, exchange rates, commodity prices, variables of monetary policy etc. However, there are certain credit rating agencies who give credit rating to institutions from excellent to poor like A.M.Best, Dun & Bradstreet, Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s, and Fitch Ratings. The Standard & Poor gives rating scale ranging from AAA to BBB to CCC to D. Rating lower than BBB- is considered as junk or speculative bond. Sound corporate governance enables organizations to control risk beforehand. Hostile takeovers are often seen as from governance point of view as the threat of takeover is believed to exert pressure on managers to act protecting the interest of shareholders. Content Corporate governance can be referred to as the structure and processes through which the affairs and business of an institution are managed and directed in order to improve the shareholder value over long term through enhancement of accountability and corporate performance considering the interest of other stakeholders. Risk management is referred to as the assessment, identification and risk prioritisation. It refers to as the effect of uncertainty on objectives. Governance and risk in finance are closely related concerns. In fact, governance, risk and compliance (GRC) are integrated in terms of avoiding conflict and gaps within an organisation. It is interpreted in various organizations in different manner. It encompasses activities of corporate governance, corporate compliance with laws and regulations applicable and enterpriser risk management (ERM). Introduction Corporate governance does not provide any single, accepted definition. It implies the way in which a company can be managed to ensure all of its stakeholders so that they can get their fair share from the earnings of the business or from the firm’s assets. It provides the system of directing and controlling the companies. In present days, corporate governance not only encompasses the interest of shareholders but also many stakeholders. The reason underlying this fact is that interest of shareholders can only be satisfied by taking into account the interest of stakeholders as companies accountable to all of their stakeholders are more successful and prosperous over the long term. So, corporate governance rests on the perception of maximising value creation by companies over long term by discharging the accountability to all of their stakeholders and by optimizing the system of corporate governance. It is also based on the economic concept of maximising market value that underpaid shareholder capitalism as it frames rule to conduct business in accordance with the desires of shareholders and owner, requiring to make money as much as possible confirming to the basic rules of society as embodied in local customs and law. There are challenges in modern society to deal with risk appropriately and effectively manage it. International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) has given certain governance mechanisms to effectively deal with risks. Implementing such governance mechan
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GOVERNANCE AND RISK IN FINANCE Table of Contents Abstract 3 Content 4 Introduction 4 Purpose of study 5 Rationale 6 Issues 6 Method 7 Discussion and Analysis 8 Event of a hostile takeover of Oracle vs. PeopleSoft 8 Corporate governance of Russia 9 Corporate governance of UK 9 Conclusion 11 Bibliography 13 Abstract Corporate Governance is necessary to be followed inside an organization to ensure good performance, having proper accountability to all stakeholders and mitigating any conflicts of interest…
Executive Summary. This project is an explorative study of risk management and its mitigation strategy in NCB Jamaica Ltd Kingston. Risk management is an area, which plays a significant role in the banking industry. Any risk that is already identified and is to be mitigated can be considered a strategic risk?
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This study utilized the articles and reports of authentic journals and working papers published by educational, financial and environmental institutions. The findings suggest that perceptions of political and legal nature, corruption, and economic risk can hinder project finance and foreign investments in the Indian market.
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But according to the authors, DCF procedures can work if the management sets realistic hurdle rates, and carefully examines its assumptions. Decision makers need to consider three critical issues: the effects of inflation, the different levels of uncertainty in different phases of a programme, and management's own ability to mitigate risk." (Hodder and Riggs, 1985)
It is identified promoting the internal audit coverage of these processes is a potential way to achieve greater operational transparency and to gain investor confidence. The major aim of this project is to
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The various smaller ports that has been developed in Turkmenistan across the Caspian ports mainly includes the Chekelen, Alaja and Ekarem and it requires the expansion of ports. In the year 2006 Turkmenistan possessed
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