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Business finance-2 - Essay Example

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In order to spread risks, most investors diversify by investing in more than one type of security or portfolio. It should be noted that investors like returns but at the same time dislikes risk and uncertainties (Sharpe, 2007). Though financial market has significant rewards and benefits, it is very complex and very volatile, thus critical analysis is required in risk evaluation so that the expected returns can be validated. Dating back in 1950s an American economist managed to establish the theory of portfolio choice (Markowitz, 1959). This was a tool used by investors during this period to analyze and predict risk in relations to the expected earnings or returns. Markowitz’s theory is the currently renowned Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT). Basically, it is an investment theory that was designed to help in maximizing portfolio returns. This is done relative to the level of portfolio risks meaning that a minimum risk levels correspondents to an equivalent expected return level. Though this theory has been widely applied within the financial sector, a lot of challenges have been pointed on its basic assumptions. However, being an improvement of the traditional investment framework, it provides an advance system for the application of the mathematical model, especially, in finance. Portfolio theory supports asset diversification as a strategy to hedge against any possible market risks that are unique to particular company. As a sophisticated investment decision making tool, it helps investors to estimate, classify, as well as, controls the amount of possible risks that may affected the expected investment returns for the company. The Essentials of Investments /Portfolio theory There are necessities to portfolio or investment theory. These include the quantification of risks and return relationships. The second one is the assumption that compensation should be awarded to investors due to risk assumption. Practically, portfolio theory differs from the traditional system of security analysis on the basis that it changes focus from an individual investment characteristics to exploring statistical relationship exhibited within individual securities that represent the entire portfolio group (Sharpe, 2007).. Through mathematical formulation, portfolio theory formulate diversification concepts in the investment with an ultimate goal of carefully selecting viable investment assets with low risks compared to the rest of asset groups. This is intuitively possible since assets can change its values in opposite direction. However, the diversification approach has been recognized to effectively lower risks even when there is no negative correlation in asset returns, but it is more effective in scenarios of a positive correlation. Looking at the technical dimension, portfolio theory models assumes that returns on assets exhibits a normal distribution function (Sharpe, 2007). It also uses standard deviation relative to investment returns to define risks. In addition, a portfolio is modeled on the basis of weighted asset combinations in order to have what is referred to as a weighted assets return combination. Based on this view, assets whose returns are not positively correlated are combined, thus helping to reduce variations in the portfolio returns. Another assumption made with regards to portfolio theory is that market is efficient and mainly comprised of rational investors. As far as this discussion is concerned, it should be noted that the main fundamental ...Show more
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Business Finance [Pick the date] 2010-11s 1. Portfolio Theory and Its Implication to Investors in the Market Portfolio Theory Portfolio theory is tools investor used before committing themselves into long term or a short term investments in securities and equities…
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