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Chinese Gender Imbalance - Research Paper Example

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However, China’s one-child policy currently threatens the gender balance of the country. Zhang Weiqing, “National Population and Family Planning Commission” Minister, stresses the intention of the country to implement this policy (as cited in Chang, 2008, p. 10). This paper aims to highlight the relationship between population and gender in China. It outlines how the government’s effort to reduce the country’s population leads to gender imbalance. The paper thoroughly explores the one-child policy and how it contributed to gender imbalance. In addition, it highlights the couple’s preference for a son as a mediating variable in the relationship between population and gender. Lastly, the paper outlines the adverse effects of gender imbalance. 2.0 One Child Policy A group of natural scientists believes that there is a drastic need to address a population crisis in China (Hesketh, 2009, p. 105). Deng Xiaoping’s effort to address the population growth became official during 1979. The one-child policy limited the offspring of the couples to one (as cited in Chang, 2008). This policy is rigorously implemented during the early 1980’s (Joint Economic Committee, 1992). The birth rate in China reduced from 33% to 16% per 1,000 on 1970 and 1998. This decline can be attributed to the "later, longer, and fewer" campaign during the 1970 (Merli & Smith, 2002). One-child policy serves as a response to a surge in population growth during the 1960’s to 1970’s. It was considered as a temporary policy upon its introduction; however, three decades later it continues to be implemented in China (Wu, 2008). One-child policy was first met with resistance manifested through an increase of birth rate in the 1980's. Local officials admitted that they failed to strictly implement the policy. This period is followed by abortions and mass fertilization as the policy was revised to make it feasible to implementation. The amendment of the policy allowed couples in the rural areas to have a second child if their firstborn is a girl (Jacka & Sargeson, 2011, p. 139). This strengthened the notion that one girl is insufficient for rural families, while two girls or a single son is good enough. Similar stipulations are present for provincial regulation of the "Population and Family Planning Law of 2002." For instance, the "Anhui Provincial Family Planning Regulations of 2002" allowed couples to have a second child if they met certain criteria (Jacka & Sargeson, 2011, p. 139). One of these criteria includes the need for couples to be registered as rural residents with a disabled son or one daughter to have a second child. The daughter is not only equated with half the worth of the son but also with the child who is disabled. The one-child policy reinforces the notion that conceiving a son is necessary for survival of the rural families (Jacka & Sargeson, 2011, p. 139). The Chinese government also allowed married couples to have a second child if they are the only children of their families and when they have special occupations (Bhattacharjya, Sudarshan, Tuljapurkar, Schachter, & Feldman, 2008). However, most Chinese are burdened by the cost of high fostering fee for raising additional children. Campaigns that proclaim “later, longer, fewer” have encouraged Chinese to delay marriages, have a smaller family, and put greater time between births (Chang, 2008, p. 10). The current fertility among Chinese female decreased to 1.45 children from 5.2 in the 1930’ ...Show more
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Chinese Gender Imbalance 1.0 Introduction The implementation of one-child policy in China reduced the population into 1.3 billion after nearly 30 years. Government officials consider strict family planning policies as essential for economic growth of the country…
Chinese Gender Imbalance
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