Tradition plays great role in gender identity construction because it displays gender role models. Liberation of women rights has challenged oppressive patriarchal traditions which represented women as uneducated and jobless housewives. According to Miller (2012), there is a huge social conflict between men and women considering gender roles. In patriarchal cultures, women are expected to sacrifice their own interests for the sake of others. When they fail to do, they become more independent and less attractive for men. However, more women have become more assertive, confident and ambitious. Such a change resulted in limitations for conservative attitude about the role of men in the society.
According to Gauntlett (2009), attitudes towards new roles of women depend on several variables. Different studies identify that men who were born in the before 1950-s are more likely to have explicitly negative attitudes towards new gender roles. The same can be said about men in their 40-s and 50-s. Younger men are more flexible in their perception of women (Sweeting et al., 2013). The analysis of popular media publications for men shows that they seem to be out of place in such conditions ( Gauntlett, 2009). The content of publications suggests new ways of constructing masculinity.
Culture and religion also influence male attitudes towards new female roles. Western liberal cultures tend to be more accepting of new female roles, while highly patriarchal societies in Asia and Africa fail to meet the demands of women and display explicit negative reactions. For instance, the study conducted in Ghana by Preko (2012) reveals that 68% of male employees desire to have a male manager. Directions given by female supervisor to male employees are perceived with explicit protest; they are humiliating for men. As a result, women in such countries in Ghana have to struggle to get managerial position in the organization. ...Show more