Actin, a prominent protein in the cytoskeleton is highly expressed in the nucleus of normal and cancerous cells and its regulation is an important molecular event in the progression of cancer where it plays crucial roles in the cell motility and migration. It is associated in protein-protein interaction. Actin-binding proteins (ABP) are involved in the molecular regulation of actin structure and dynamics where they modulate the nucleation of new actin filament. Consequently, the activities of ABP are regulated by various signaling pathways so that there is an appropriate spatial and temporal regulation of actin dynamics in cells. The Rho-family GTPases are the most explored actin binding protein and they include RhoA which modulates the formation of contractile stress fibers. The Rac1 activates the formation of lamellipodial actin filament network at the leading edge in motile cells. Membrane phophoinositides are also involved in the regulation of actin dynamics. These molecules associate with actin binding protein ultimately regulating the activity of actin. Metastasis plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of cancer and identification of the mechanism influencing this metastasis is essential in the development of appropriate breast cancer treatment procedures. Metastasis is a complex process encompassing different steps such as neurovascularization, stromal invasion and infiltration of cancer cells into vascular and lymphatic spaces. Introduction Breast cancer is diagnosed in women all over the world and breast cancer metastasis is a leading cause of breast-related mortality in over 90% of cancer patients’ population (Ferlay et al., 2007). Motility of cancer cells is essential in the initial stage of breast cancer metastasis. Identifying the factors facilitating this motility is essential in establishing the contributing factors towards cancer invasion and metastasis. The eukaryotic cell is made of a filamentous network of microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules. This structure is collectively referred to as the cytoskeleton. The cytoplasmic network has long been associated with cell motility and proliferation but studies have shown that actin, a prominent protein in the cytoskeleton is also highly expressed in the nucleus of normal and cancerous cells (Jockusch et al., 2006). Actin cytoskeleton regulation is an important molecular event in the progression of cancer and it plays crucial roles in the cell motility and migration. Among the abundant proteins in eukaryotic cell, actin is the most abundant (Dominguez and Holmes, 2011). This protein is involved in maintaining the complex internal infrastructure of eukaryotic cells. The internal infrastructure of the cell comprises the maintenance of shape and integrity which is associated with cellular functioning. This protein forms a tangle of cross-linked filaments referred to as actin cytoskeleton that provides the organizational scaffold of animal, plant and fungal cells. In a typical cell organization, actin filaments are involved in the complex strenuous, structural tasks for instance, in the movement of myosin in muscle cells. The actin protein stricture encompasses a combination of strength and sensitivity. The actin structure can be termed as “dynamic” in virtue of their formation and roles. The dynamic model of actin is powered by a molecule of ATP which is bound to each actin monomer. Free actin bound to an ATP molecule, binds firmly to a
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Subject: Health Sciences and Medicine, Essay Topic Title: Molecular Regulation of Actin Dynamics in Breast Cancer. Date: 17th December 2012 Abstract Breast cancer is diagnosed in women worldwide and is a leading cause of breast-related mortality. Cancer cells migration is an essential stage of breast cancer metastasis…
Breast cancer is the more common type cancer among American women and is one of the leading causes of death in the United States (Weaver, 2007). For instance, in 2007, experts estimated placed at 240,000 people, including men, who will be victims of cancer in the United States for that year (Weaver, 2007).
According to the research findings it can therefore be said that breast cancer is an important malignancy in women because of its high incidence. The signs and symptoms of breast cancer are important to be understood by women as the early detection of the tumor plays an important role in better prognosis.
Breast cancer has got many risk factors. The majority cases of breast cancer are reported among women who are above 50 years. The cancer is known to occur is families with a history of the cancer (National Cancer Institute, 4). It is also common in the late cases of the first pregnancy and among kinsfolk with a history of benign breasts ailments and diseases.
A special risk group consists of women age 40 years and older. To screen breast cancer is a complex and a challenging activity. Performance of routine breast self examination (BSE) is another key step in the process of breast cancer identification and prevention.
There are many types of cancer. As the name indicates, cancer cells are produced in the breast part with the possibility of affecting other organs and tissues of the human body. Cells are the basic elements that create tissues in the body. Research (McPhee & Tierney, 2007, pp.
The RNA polymerase needs other proteins in order to carry out the transcription process. Ensuring that transcription is adequately and properly carried out helps ensure cell growth and metabolism. Recently emerging studies point out that some adult cells may be affected and transformed into stem cells when a small number of transcription factors are added in (Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006).
Ethnic specific mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 are found in Ashkenazi (European) Jewish origin and in some families in Iceland, the Netherlands, and the Balkans. American Cancer Society has reported that breast cancer related deaths are
Estrogen is the hormone which supports the breast cancer to grow rapidly, but what actually causes breast cancer, is still a debate. However, hormones do play a big role in the growth of breast cancer. Studies have shown that breast cancer rate is high in those people
On the positive side, advanced treatment and drugs available for breast cancer, are saving many women’s lives and they are able to resume their normal life with minor ‘alterations’. Also, early detection can cure the woman in an effective
3 pages (750 words)Essay
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