StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Artificial Nutrition and Hydration - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet
Earlier in Japan, as in many industrialized countries, the only ethical position in this situation was the sanctity of life and therefore the clinically right action was always to give treatment. Now, with more advanced medical technology and national decade on these issues, a more recent concept quality of life, especially for dying patients, has gained influence. The lack of knowledge that scientifically justifies giving or not giving AFF to terminally ill patients also prevails internationally (Konishi, Davis & Aiba, 2002). As controversial and sensitive ethical issues continue to challenge nurses and other health care professionals, many of them have begun to develop a unique appreciation for the diverse ethical viewpoints of others.
ANH is not categorized as a treatment that must always be provided, and in coming to a decision about forgoing or continuing ANH, the patient's surrogates are allowed to either use their knowledge about the patient's desires and values or weigh the costs and benefits of tube feeding against the costs and benefits of waiving this treatment.
At the same time, Americans still have a good deal of anxiety about the prospect of discontinuing food and fluids, both for themselves and for their loved ones. This is one reason why there are approximately 1.5 million patients being tube fed in the United States today. Half of this group is over the age of sixty-five, and many if not most of these patients are severely and irreversibly demented (OTA 1987). The clinical reality is that tube feeding is often provided as a matter of course and that the choice of whether to tube feed or not is never fully explored. This situation contrasts markedly with the situation just a few decades ago.
Today, the modus operandi of physicians and families is turned on its head. In past decades and centuries, family members provided around-the clock palliative care in the home, and physicians occasionally stopped by to do what they could. Today, by contrast, caregivers provide various levels of technologically sophisticated care twenty-four hours a day, and family members drop by on occasion to do what they can. In the past, diseases were allowed to run their natural courses, largely because the technology had not been developed to accurately diagnose and treat mortal pathologies. Death was simply accepted as a natural and ultimate phase of living, an essential element of our humanity. Today, death tends to be regarded by many as a conquerable evil that must be resisted at all costs. With the widespread use of ANH and antibiotics, each of which can help to sustain the body in a vegetative or near-vegetative state for months and perhaps even years, dementia no longer has a terminal phase per se (Peck, Cohen, and Mulvihill 1990: 1195).
A number of researchers have suggested that we return to the mind-set of the 1950s, when aggressive medical procedures were not blindly applied in the absence of thought about the ultimate goal of the intervention. Walshe and Leonard (1985: 1047) locate themselves squarely in this camp, arguing that "as in patients who develop the [vegetative] syndrome after acute injury, patients with progressive neurological disease should be treated without undue intervention to preserve a mindless life." Mark Wicclair ( 1993: 60) advances the same position: "The severely demented elderly constitute another category of patients about whom it might be ...Show more


Artificially provided nutrition and hydration (ANH) is a medical procedure that can be withheld or withdrawn like any other. A decade has passed since that heated discussion occurred. Today in Japan, end-of-life issues have become an even more urgent problem…
Author : altenwerthmagno
Artificial Nutrition and Hydration
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Artificial Nutrition and Hydration"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Trade in Energy and Energy Security
Running Head: Trade in Energy and Energy Security Trade in Energy and Energy Security [Name of Writer] [Name of Institution] Persistent Vegetative State Patients: Legal Issues Introduction From history, it is evident that the field of medicine is based on the concepts, standards and principles of ethics, morality and law and therefore, the main aim of the medical professional is to provide care to the patient.
9 pages (2250 words) Essay
Ethical Issues: Withholding Life Sustaining Treatments During End of Life Care
In withholding treatment, care providers invariably withhold information about interventions, as they are deemed purposeless to be told to patients or proxies, in turn, doctors retain greater decision?making prerogative and don’t feel obliged to get consent from patients or proxies.
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Euthanasia in Australia
Euthanasia in Australia Introduction The ethics of euthanasia has been debated for quite some time in Australia. Though certain territories of Australia managed to legalise the same for a short time; presently, euthanasia is illegal in all territories of Australia.
7 pages (1750 words) Essay
Lord Joffe's Bill: Moral and Legal Justifications for Change in Law in Relation to the Right to Die
In fact no culture or religion believes that the right to die is a fundamental right. For them, life is created in this world by God and only He has the right to take it back. At the same time, there are plenty of social organizations which argue for making the right to die as a fundamental right to everyone.
9 pages (2250 words) Essay
Clinical Decision Making
Joan John who is Tobias’ wife of 50 years meets Dr. Smith at the hospital’s gate and frantically tries to explain the condition of his husband. She explains that her husband’s condition worsened and she was forced to call the ambulance to rush him to the hospital.
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Attitudes of nursing towards euthanasia
2003). A year later, Belgium followed suit and passed a similar law to regulate euthanasia (De Beer, et al. 2003). As other countries begin to contemplate similar laws, we must consider the position of nurses amidst the euthanasia controversy-not just their physical involvement, but their emotional involvement, legal position, and the spiritual conflicts they may encounter along the way.
20 pages (5000 words) Essay
Patients with Dementia
As the symptoms of Dementia further develop, the patient will begin to lose his mentalfunctions. Legal issues then arise concerning his capacity to make a decision. First, there may be doubts about whether a patient is legally capable to decide about a particular medical procedure, especially if the patient refuses to go-ahead with a procedure that the doctor recommends.
10 pages (2500 words) Essay
Medical law Master Essay
Therefore, these are practical situations where, the caregiver is supposed to do something and at the same time is not expected to do something (Johnstone, M., 2005, 227). If this occurs, the physician or the nurse will have to make some choice between the two conflicting options, both of which are equally unsatisfactory.
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Artifical hydration in pallitiaive care
This medical technique of care, called palliative care is given by avoiding and minimising suffering and pain through early detection and therapy. In addition,
20 pages (5000 words) Essay
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Let us find you another Essay on topic Artificial Nutrition and Hydration for FREE!
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
Join us:
Contact Us