"Participants' responses to the introduction of health in the curriculum were categorised in one of four ways: pessimism, partisanship, fanschen (to turn over) or marketisation. Their response depended on whether they viewed health as the central nursing philosophy rather than disease or care". (Smith, P. et al, 1999)
"Health promotion is not new - the health promotion approach emerged in the early 1970's, although its roots go back to public health at the turn of the last century. In terms of its theory and history, it is linked to primary health care, public health and community development approaches". (Children, Youth and Women's Health Service, 2004)
Health promotion got a new face in 1986 with the Ottawa Charter which gave importance to multiple strategies to improve health, from working with individuals through legislation and public policy. Health inequalities and social determinants of health have got more attention since the mid to late 1990's and health promotion now is based upon improving the health of the most disadvantaged in our society.
A state of complete physical, social and mental well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Health is a resource for everyday life, not the object of living. It is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources as well as physical capabilities. Reference: Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. WHO, Geneva, 1986
Concept of health is a fundamental right to human beings. The pre-requisites for health are peace, sufficient economic resources, food and shelter and a stable eco-system.
Thus, understanding of health is the central theme of health promotion and all people should have an access to basic resources for health. In order to have an understanding of health, every system which governs the social and economic conditions and physical environment should take part in the activities which maintain the health and well being of individuals and a holistic approach is required for health promotion.
Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health. Reference: Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. WHO, Geneva, 1986. Health promotion enables people to increase control over the determinants of health and modifying the social, environmental and economic conditions so as to improve their health. The three basic requirements for health promotion are:
1. Advocacy - To create the essential conditions for health.
2. Enable - to achieve their full health potential.
3. Mediate - Between the different interests in society.
In order to achieve these goals, we have to build public health policy, strengthen community action for health, create supportive environments for health, develop personal skills, and re-orient health services. "Health promotion includes a technology to strengthen communities' ability to take effective action at the local level. The technology includes methods to map and mobilize local resources, activate citizen, government and corporate participation, plan for and manage positive change, transform neighbourhoods and key institutions such as homes, schools, hospitals and work places into health-promoting