In this assignment, comparison of nursing theories of Modeling and Role Modeling, Symphonoloigcal Bioethical Theory, and Cultural Care Theory of Diversity and Universality will be made in order to examine which theory has maximum congruence with practice (Tomey & Alligood, 2006).
Knowledge development in nursing from the phenomenological tradition has been very active during the past two decades, as shown by numerous research articles and books published under this heading. Nursing studies from the phenomenological perspective most often have applied the phenomenological methods developed within the psychological tradition. The issue is how such studies may culminate in middle-range descriptive theories of various human experiences, a question rarely raised by the researchers in phenomenological studies. Many researches use interpretive phenomenology, where context and history are viewed in hermeneutic phenomenology as the frames within which knowledge of people's everyday practices and experiences is gained through interpretations, thus making the knowledge tentative and oriented to understanding. Theories emerging from basic foundations of research must assume a different format from those based on other ontological foci permitting explanation or prediction or both. Basically, theories with the ontological focus of existentialism or phenomenology will need to be oriented either to the specification of methodology or the descriptive features regarding the realm of human life, such as human health, and research is needed in that direction (LoBiondo-Wood & Harber, 2006).
Difference between the Grand Theories and Middle-Range Theories
Development of middle-range theories is a part of the natural growth in application of a conceptual framework. Middle-range theories, clearly developed from within a conceptual framework, accomplish several goals. Such theories can be directly applied to nursing situations, whereas a conceptual framework in Grand theories is usually too abstract for such direct application. Validation of middle-range theories, clearly developed within a particular conceptual framework, lends validation to the conceptual framework itself. Theories such as the classical grand theories in nursing demonstrate a variety of integrated approaches to nursing based on the worldview of an individual theorist. Ongoing research through testing and evaluation has supported the validity and reliability of the theories. Grounded or middle-range theories, however, focus on particular aspects of nursing practice and are commonly generated from nursing practice. As such, some intellectuals view middle-range theories as more relevant and useful to nursing than the application of grand theories (Tomey & Alligood, 2006).
The Theory of Modeling and Role-Modeling by Erickson, Tomlin, and Swain in 1983 is considered by the authors as a theory and paradigm both. From nurses' interaction with patients, the authors constructed the theory. Helen Erickson is now in Imagine Nursing; she is a consultant in Holistic Nursing and the Executive Director, American Holistic Nurses' Certification Corporation. She