Impression management or self-presentation framework employs a theatrical or dramaturgical metaphor to describe social life. People are actors, taking many roles, attempting to please audiences to win their moral, social, and financial support. Concern for appearances is paramount, thus the social actor engages in many impression management tactics and strategies to avoid looking bad.
In the following essays I would like to discuss the role of self presentation in the life of university students. I will explore the social determinants of students' behavior in order to define the positive and negative aspects of self presentation and impression management strategies. Also I will propose tactics of commonly used behavior for those wishing to succeed in the area of self presentation and to positively impress others.
One of the most common and easiest means of presenting oneself is through verbal statements about one's accomplishments, character, motives, or plans. Such claims affect the evaluations others make by providing them with personal information on which to base their evaluations. Giacalone (1985) found that when individuals in a organizational setting claimed credit for a particular accomplishment, others were not always willing to give them that credit, whereas Riordan and colleagues showed that when individuals seriously erred on the job, excuses served to ameliorate possible resulting negative evaluations.
More broadly, much self - presentation can be regarded as a mode of social influence, specifically as a way of affecting how other people respond to oneself. Researches suggested that self - presentation serves to maintain or augment one's power in relationships with other people. When social psychologists use the word power, they are simply referring to the ability to intentionally produce desired changes in other people. One person has power over another to the extent that his or her actions can get the other person to behave in certain desired ways (Arkin, Appleman, Berger, 1980).
Self - presentation following success may ensure that one receives the recognition and credit deserved if the quality or difficulty of the accomplishment is clearly understood.
Attribution theory suggests two processes that lead to differing perceptions of the presenters, followed by differing amounts of credit given to them: These two processes are augmentation and discounting. In augmentation, individuals describe the progress of the project, emphasizing problems involved in its completion. To the extent that there are substantial impediments, individuals should be given more credit for the success of the project. Alternatively, individuals who adopt modest presentations in which they share credit with a number of other individuals presumably should be given less credit because, to the extent that others are involved, each individual's responsibility for the success would be discounted.
Research on attribution theory has shown that, in addition to developing impressions about an actor, observers develop impressions about the act itself, and that the latter impressions can be affected by the same variables that influence the former. For instance, the ease with which an action is performed has been shown to influence its perceived difficulty.
The primary goal of self - presentati