'Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion... and in public or in private to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance' (WHO 1948). Ethnic minorities are defined as: '... social groups with distinctive languages, values, religions, customs, attitudes and geographical origins' (Sewell 1995). The 1976 Race Relations Act set up a legal framework for developing services for ethnic minority groups. The 1989 Children Act and the 1991 Parent's charter have followed this. All these are obliged to cater for the needs of ethnic minority groups and to ensure that services provided to the public are not racially discriminatory by the healthcare providers.
Also during the last fifteen years, laws or other legal instruments respecting and protecting the rights of patients was adopted by European countries which reflect the equal and inalienable right, and at the same time it reflects the progressive recognition of the inherent dignity all potential users of the health care system. The method of implementing laws and their real content vary in different countries due to universal nature of patient's rights and that of individual rights, often depending upon prevailing cultural and social norms. Different models of the patient-physician relationship have been developed, and the particular rights to which patients are entitled to are informative.
For example in North America and Europe, there is at least four models which explain this relationship: the paternalistic model, the informative model, the interpretive model, and the deliberative model. Each of these suggests different professional obligations of the physician toward the patient. For instance, the best interests of the patient as judged by the clinical expert are valued above the provision of comprehensive medical information and decision-making power to the patient in the paternalistic model, while the informative model, sees the doctor as chiefly a provider of information, and the patient as a consumer who is in the best position to judge what is in her own interest, but there is growing international consensus that all patients have a fundamental right to privacy, to the confidentiality of their medical information, to consent to or to refuse treatment, and to be informed about relevant risk to them of medical procedures.
However, in promoting patient's rights and responsibilities, the development strategy has to be carefully prepared, in order to ensure that the intention is translated into practical action, which commands the support of all parties involved. These actions are not immediately followed, but take time to become fully effective.
Patient's rights law is intended to secure good medical practice, but it can also serve to improve understanding between patients and medical staffs if both were aware of their rights.
Nurses need to be aware of diversity to enhance patient care so that ethnic minority groups were receiving equality of treatment and service, in order to achieve these a multicultural consultation group was formed by Horton General Hospital in Banbury. The health care for ethnic minority communities takes five-year plan to be standardised in Oxfordshire and educate staff to enhance their cultural