Diphtheria is a kind of infection which is instigated by a special type of bacterium called as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The disease derives its name from the name of the bacterium causing it. Airborne respiratory droplets are the primary means of transmittal of diphtheria from one individual to another. Direct contact with the secretion of patient can also transmit diphtheria to others. Primary symptoms of the disease are fever, problematic breathing, sore throat, malaise and neck enlargement. Antibiotics and antitoxins are used for treating the patient with diphtheria. If proper treatment is not given on time, diphtheria may cause neurologic and cardiac problems in the patient and cause death. Best way to prevent diphtheria is immunization. Etiology of Diphtheria: The chief cause of diphtheria is toxigenic strains of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae. In few cases, Corynebacterium ulcerans may also instigate the disease in an individual. “C diphtheriae is an irregularly staining, gram-positive, nonspore-forming, nonmotile, pleomorphic bacillus with 4 biotypes (mitis, intermedius, belfanti, and gravis)” (AAP, 2009). Biotypes of the C diphtheriae can be nontoxigenic or toxigenic in nature. The Victims of Diphtheria: Children are primarily the victims of diphtheria. A lot of children have lost their lives due to diphtheria in the past. 100,000 to 200,000 Americans acquired diphtheria every year in the 1920s and 13,000 to 15,000 lost their lives every year.