Name:- - Ulcerative colitis Introduction The proper and normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract is central to the normal functioning of the human body. The gastrointestinal tract serves to provide as means of providing nutrients to the cells of the body…
The dysfunction of the bowels can result in constipation, diarrhoea and faecal incontinence. The underlying causes of bowel dysfunction maybe primarily associated with the bowel inflammatory conditions or it may result from other secondary factors which include injuries to the spinal cord, as a result of the side effects of certain medications or due to certain endocrine disorders as well as improper diets and infectious agents. Proper diagnosis and management of bowel dysfunction is essential for the health of the patient. The treatment is related to the type and the extent of the disease. Ulcerative Colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease which affects the gastrointestinal system. Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease which primarily affects the colon and its respective layers. In most of the cases it is seen that ulcerative colitis only affects the mucosa and sub-mucosa of the colon but in severe cases the layer of muscularis externa may also be affected. It is a disease which is different from the Crohn’s Disease in terms of continuity from the rectum. Crohn’s Disease is not continuous from the rectum whereas Ulcerative Colitis is continuous from the rectum. This paper would further revolve around Ulcerative colitis and present findings about it (Kumar et al 2005). ...
Pathophysiology The inflammatory disease extends from the rectum to the entire colon. It develops from a small inflammatory granule in the lamina propria of the colon and this extends continually all over the colon then. At first the mucosa of the colon may exhibit signs of reddening all over but soon after it would also show granules. As the inflammation grows in the mucosa it is seen that the distal colon gets affected the most in the beginning. As the mucosa is being destroyed a part of it tries to re-grow and this forms isolated poles of mucosa growing in the colon. These poles are then called pseydopolyps. Tunnels may also be created in between the mucosal linings. The surface on the serosa of the colon is not affected usually. In the late stages of ulcerative colitis it is seen that toxic megacolon develops. In some cases it is also seen that the ulcer extends up to the muscularis propria and the neural plexus. Toxic megacolon is a condition in which the colon is greatly affected destroying the neuromuscular function of the colon. Crypt abscesses are also found in the ulcer as neutrophils may gather in the layers. The ulcer then extends from the lamina propria to layers of submucosa and mucosa. It is also characterized by large epithelial changes in the layers which can trigger carcinoma of the colon. Dysplasia and atypia are also found in some cases of ulcerative colitis. Patients with ulcerative colitis suffer from bloody diarrhea which may occur only for days and then stop. But this bleeding may recur after a span of period which is known as the asymptomatic period in patients with ulcerative colitis. The bleeding diarrhea can at times be so lethal that it is to be handled with emergency care (Kumar et al 2005). The first ...
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