This essay discusses that one of the most notable discoveries for the field of Blood Transfusions is the discovery of the various blood types by Karl Landsteiner between the years 1900 to 1901. This identification provided the answers for the failure of earlier methods of transfusions. The classification of blood type under the ABO groups based on the antigens present in the blood of the individual and the antibodies created by the blood in order to reject foreign elements in the blood. Mixing two non-compatible blood groups can cause the blood to coagulate and release toxins in to the body. This was the reason for the failure of previous attempts to transfuse blood. By his research findings all blood types were known to fall under the ABO category and classified thus as A- type, B-type, AB- type and O-Type blood groups. A-type blood groups had prominence of the A antigen and anti-B antibody and B-type had the reverse. These antibodies are the main elements that act towards rejecting or accepting a blood type. O type was found to have no antigens but both antibodies. It was termed as the Universal Donor but could only accept blood from another with the same blood type. AB group for instance had both antigens but no antibodies and therefore can be classified the Universal accepter of all blood types but can only donate to its own blood type. Further classifications were later made based on the discovery of the Rh factor in the blood. This discovery paved the path for future tremendous successes in blood transfusions as medical science now had a better idea of why their methods failed to work prior to this classification. Further research on blood and is components and properties lead to advancements in paternity tests. Different techniques of Blood Transfusions: The oldest and probably the most popular methods used for blood transfusions is Anastomosis (Keynes, 1922) in other words, Direct Transfusion intravenously. Blood is transfused between the radial artery of the donor to a median cephalic vein of the recipient. The radial artery in the wrist, although the most accessible is also the only available artery in the wrist and the median cephalic vein found at the elbow is also the most suitable for such a transfusion. Therefore it required a great amount of accuracy and provided some challenges in blood transfusion. The artery and vein in question are very small in nature and therefore it was a challenge for people in the medical profession to target it accurately and conduct the process within the limited time available. Blood has a natural tendency to coagulate outside of the human body; therefore it
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This article will explore the subject of blood transfusions under the following divisions:
1. Nature of Blood
2. Different methods of transfusion.
3. Preparation of the blood for transfusion
4. Storage of the blood
5. Usage of the blood for transfusion…
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