The region was inhabited by about 5000 Lenape Native Americans at the time of its European discovery in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano,an Italian explorer in the service of the French crown,who called it "Nouvelle Angoulme".New York City grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule. The city emerged as the theater for a series of major battles known as the New York Campaign during the American Revolutionary War. New York City was the capital of the United States until 1790.In the early 1800s, New York City was thriving due to economic power; the state soon acquired the nickname, "The Empire State." The New York Stock Exchange opened with great success on Wall Street a few years before the new century. There was chaos during the American Civil War, with major rioting in the New York Draft Riots. During the American Civil War on July 13, 1863 opponents of conscription began five days of rioting, the 'Draft Riots', the worst in United States history. [www.usgennet.org] The post-war period was noted for the corruption and graft for which Tammany Hall has become proverbial. The mid-1800s were plagued by disease, intense immigration, political corruption, and a weak economy. During this period 61% of import and 70% of exports for U.S. came through New York. Its economy was a vigorous artisan and craftsman society second to none in the United States while its banking and commercial sectors were fast becoming dominant in the country.