In this context, some experts contend that the extent to which media works as a public sphere, representing the civic populace, while remaining free and accessible to all, works as a chief indicator of democracy within a political order. This stems from an old tradition that positions media at a juncture between the governed and the governors. Thus, from this viewpoint democracy appears as a relative concept, where its nature is dependent on the movement of public information. This in turn helps to ascertain to what extent the citizens can take steps grounded on informed decisions to make the governors liable for their activities. From the perspective of the orthodox democracy theory, public sphere is a realm between the two distinctly separate two areas, civil society and the state, which ensures protections for each individual within the society. According to the Liberal theory, public sphere is equal to the political sphere, and the mass media’s public role is delineated in relation to the state. The liberal theory theorizes on the virtues of civil society's ascendency over the state (Curran 1991). Along with this, it also views the market as the process optimally suited for addressing all information requirements of society. However, as market led information tend to move through privatisation, conglomeration and deregulation, after a certain limit it fails to meet the requirements necessary for maintaining democratic ideals of freedom and equal accessibility (Garnham 1986). Major contentions to the liberal press theories have faced challenges from the other democratic theory pertaining to the Marxist viewpoint. From the position of an orthodox Marxist, within capitalist societies, the public sphere tends to disguise the ascendency of media that does not directly confront the liberal nature of the public sphere. Instead of breaking out of the dichotomy that exists between a liberal civil society and the state, Marxism rejected all reforms within the public sphere and considered socialist transformation as the only solution. In this context, to overcome the weak points as seen within the orthodox liberal democracy theory and Marxist theory, Curran suggested amalgamation of the collectivist approach with a general market approach, for democratisation of public sphere by making it more representative and accessible. Analysing mass media as a part of the public sphere from a modern perspective has helped modern liberal democracy theory to transcend the traditional civil society-state polarisation that has dictated all media debate until recently (Dahlgren 1991). Orthodox democratic theory rejected the method in which differences were made between public and private domains, which currently is the chief factor in the definition of public sphere within the realms of liberal democracy theory. The mediation role of mass media and broadcasting currently encompasses almost all areas extending from the home to the workplace (Curran 1991). The essay in this context will critically evaluate the role of public relations (using mass media) in a modern liberal democracy. Discussion Role of mass media as a part of public relations with society As conceptualised by the liberal democracy
Critically evaluate the role of public relations in a modern liberal democracy Introduction From a general viewpoint, there exists a close relationship between democratic theory and theories of the public sphere (Garnham 1986). Democratic theory is based on liability and receptivity within the decision-making process while theories of the public sphere are based on the role of public communication in assisting or contravening this process…
Acceptable governance consists of rule of law, efficient institutions of state, unhidden management and accountability of citizen issues, human rights protection and the right intervention of the public in the decision making process regarding their lives and country (Osborne, 2010, p.91).
Liberal Democracy. Liberal democracy refers to representative democracy, which is composed of elected representatives whose power is checked through the constitution. In liberal democracies, the constitution is used to protect the rights of the minority groups, individual liberties and equality.
As is well known, "democracy" is taken from Greek word which means "government of the people, by the people and for the people." "demos" means people, and "cratos" means government. This is the meaning of the word (the nominal definition), but the concept to which the word corresponds (the real definition), has been evaluated or developed through history (De Torre, 1997).
Development or modernization was defined as " the process of change toward those types of social, economic and political systems that have developed in Western Europe and North America from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth and have thus spread to other European countries and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the South American, Asian and African continents * (Eisenstadt 1).
One of the most key points about the liberal democracy is the role which is played by individual in democratic process. Some political scientists mention that democracy is individual participation and the main emphasis is how this participation changes and transform people and society in the whole.
of the USA in Operation Iraqi Freedom and consider the extent to which the shock and awe air campaign was a military success but a public relations failure.
It is further submitted that in order to consider the US position in Operation Iraqi Freedom it is necessary to emphasise
Liberal democracy is intrinsically valuable to a society. This paper will not disapprove Sen arguments; the researcher will discuss, in light of experiences in non-democratic countries such as China, and South Korea, that Sen’s ideology of liberal democracy fostering development is misleading.
According to Chan (2002), from time immemorial various governments have been culprits of accusations of either violating or infringing human rights. Due to such situations and with the preamble knowledge that human being play crucial role in building the society, it can