Special needs students were place in special educational institutions separate from other students before 1970. Federal support of inclusion started in 1958 when Public Law 85-926 allowed the use of funding to prepare personnel at universities and researcher who would then train personnel to work with special needs children. Before this law, "Burke (1976) indicated. Only 40 colleges and universities reported coursework in mental retardation." (Kleinhammer-Tramill and Fiore 218). Although Public Law 85-926 allowed funding for personnel, other Public Laws were passed to expand the purpose of the funding. For example, Public Law 87-276 in 1961 allowed for the training of teachers for deaf children. Only two years later, Public Law 88-164 included training for personnel to work with children with many other special needs. These needs included children with mental retardation, emotional disturbances, deafness, and hearing, speech, visual, and health impairments. This law also created the Division of Handicapped Children and Youth. Congress passed Public Law 94-142 in 1975, which created the Handicapped Children Act allowing education for all children regardless of needs. With the federal funding and support to train personnel in special education, the number of degrees rewarded for such personnel increased from 5,341 to 14,144 master degrees and the number of preparation programs also grew from 40 to 698 colleges and universities (Kleinhammer-Tramill and Fiore 221). In 1990, the Federal government came to support full inclusion by passing the American with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Handicapped Children Act was amended and its name was changed to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in the 1990's. IDEA requires that all children with disabilities be educated in regular classrooms unless the disability is so severe that education in a regular classroom cannot be achieved. In 1997 there were some major changes to IDEA. The plan offered transportation and other related services to help a special needs child benefit from special education. It also allowed for supplemental aids and services to aid in a special need child's success within the inclusive classroom. Finally, general education teachers became involved in the process to include special needs children in general education classes. In 2001, Public Law 107-110 authorized the No Child Left behind Act (NCLB). This act requires that all classrooms be staffed with qualified teachers by the end of 2005-2006. There are some significant court cases concerning the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classes. In 1989, Daniel R. v. State Board of Education involved the education of a six-year-old boy with Down syndrome. The court determined that there is a two-part test involved in deciding if a special needs child is to be in an inclusive classroom. The first part is can education in the regular education classroom be achieved satisfactorily The second part is has the child been mainstreamed to the appropriate extent In 1993, Mavis v. Sobol determined in a New York City court that placement in a regular clas
An inclusive classroom allows all students to be engaging in the learning process regardless of strengths or weaknesses. "Inclusion is really about school change to improve the education system for all students." (Grenot-Scheyer et al. 1). Including special education student in general education classes has sparked much debate over many years as laws have been developed to ensure that special needs children are given the same opportunities as all other children…
The purpose of this study is to define the approaches to differentiation as well as whether this will benefit students that are learning with specific approaches. The research will provide information from Gardner, Vygotsky and Montessori as some of the researchers working with differentiated instruction. The research conducted to support this paper will help teachers with new skills and knowledge to best support their students in the classroom.
According to the paper inclusive education, or inclusive teaching, means: “teaching in ways that do not exclude students, accidentally or intentionally, from opportunities to learn”. Inclusion is based upon beliefs, not on strategies. When all students are given equal opportunities, it enhances their learning process, which is extremely beneficial for students at risk.
An English language teacher, for example, needs to have a related degree in the subject that is accepted and recognized before being qualified as a teacher.
The role of an English language teacher is to use different lesson plans and activities to make the task of learning a language appear in an interesting light before the students.
Teaching begins at an early age of the child development, the teaching school being classified as early childhood development, the children are first enrolled in baby class, then to pre unit and lastly to the nursery school. The next level of their education is the primary school.
As such, ELT course-books reflect ongoing changes in pedagogy (Crookall, 1997). A course-book in second language education draws on
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), which has been a dramatic and significant change that has occurred within second language education in the past five decades.
Significantly, dyslexia may be comprehended as "a learning difference, a combination of strengths and weaknesses, which affect the learning process in reading, spelling, writing and sometimes number and calculation. Dyslexic learners may also have accompanying weaknesses in short-term memory, sequencing and the speed at which they process information." (What is Dyslexia P 23).
Needless to say, the problems associate with effective ESE are only compounded within the context of an ESOL classroom.
This report, divided into three sections, will cover a series of visits which the author made to Kendal Elementary School. Over a total of eight visits, each lasting the length of a second grade elementary classroom session, the author observed various aspects of ESE teaching/learning within an ESOL environment.
I have taken many steps to ensure that our classroom setting will be one that is entirely inclusive. It is my personal belief that no child should ever feel inadequate, inept, or forsaken. I strongly believe that every child has an