This research will begin with the statement that George Orwell’s Animal Farm is considered one of the most prominent yet controversial stories among author’s works. In “Why I Write” Orwell confesses that Animal Farm is “the first book in which I tried, with full consciousness of what I was doing, to fuse political purpose and artistic purpose into one whole”. In the Preface to the Ukrainian edition of Animal Farm, he describes how an encounter with a little boy driving a huge cart-horse gave him the inspiration of the form of Animal Farm. He writes, “I proceeded to analyze Marx’s theory from the animals’ point of view and use it as the point of departure of the story”. Fredric Warburg tells the audience that the book took six years to conceive and three months to write. This first conscious endeavor to combine political thought and art requiring six years’ preparation is not a waste but a great success. Many critics consider Animal Farm the best of Orwell's works. In Orwell’s fable, the audience notices that first link between the Animal Farm and the human world lies in the two names of the farm, Manor Farm, and Animal Farm. When one juxtaposes the two names, one gets Man[/]or Animal Farm, or Man, or Animal Farm implying the duality of the fable. The juxtaposition of man and animal also underlines the animal nature of human being. ...
From the critical perspective, a name of paramount importance has not been discussed by critics is Napoleon. Orwell apprently names Napoleon the pig after Napoleon Bonaparte, the first dictator who usurped the fruits of the first revolution for democracy, namely the French Revolution, in European history. Like his human predecessor, Napoleon the pig takes advantage of the animal revolution, crowns himself the "king" of Animal Farm," and restores the Farm back to Manor Farm. In the mean time, he himself has become indistinguishable from the former enemies the animals fought against. I believe also that Orwell names the pig to imply that Napoleon and his regime will be overthrown in the end, as happened to the historical Napoleon Bonaparte, even though the logic of the book itself does not really hint at such a possibility. It is evident that in the recesses of Orwell's pessimism, there lies a moderate optimistic belief in the possibility of a better future.
In addition to the symbolic meanings of the names, the animal characters are seen allegorically. It is now a commonplace that Old Major represents Marx, Lenin or Marx-Lenin combined; Napoleon represents Stalin; Snowball - Trotsky; Frederich - Hitler; Pillkinton, the Allies or Churchill, or England (Lee, 559). But if the allegory has a "point-to-point correspondence with the events of Russian history from 1917-1943," (Hodgart, 138) a reader may find difficulty in identifying Major with either Marx or Lenin, for Marx certainly has no chance to meet Stalin and Trotsky, and Lenin himself led the Russian Revolution from start to end.
Actually some critics are discontent with Animal Farm as a satire on the Russian Revolution because Orwell has not reflected the complete picture of the