This paper “Writing the History of the Australian Frontier” will compare the views of Keith Windschuttle and Henry Reynolds and place those views within the debate known as the “History Wars”. The paper will also briefly look at why this vigorous debate has become important in a much larger context…
In particular, Windschuttle objects to Reynolds figure of ’20,000’ Aboriginal dead, calling the figure (at best) “unwarranted” (Windschuttle 2000: 18). Windschuttle continues, attacking the apparently arbitrary nature of the ’20,000’, arguing that Reynolds and others have taken inductive reasoning to ‘unreasonable’ levels (18). Rather than 20,000 Aboriginal dead, he argues that the impossibility of the task, and the lack of credible sources, should convince historians to leave the subject well enough alone (23). In reply to Windschuttle’s claim that he fudged the figures Reynolds weak states that he ‘believes’ his figures are accurate – yet he really provides little solid evidence to support that claim. Instead, he assures us that if there were “2000 attacks on the settlers” the vastly superior European weapons combined with an “overwhelming determination to avenge any attack” there must have been tens of thousands of Aboriginals killed during the period (206). This is the very argument that upsets Windschuttle as it appears Reynold’s figures are nothing more than educated guesswork.
Nonetheless, Reynolds, in reply to Windschuttle’s accusations attacks both Windschuttle’s methodology and his bias. Windschuttle, he says, has a “nose for conspiracy and a penchant for overblown headlines”, he has “almost no experience in the field”, he is a zealot “crude, quixotic and clumsy”, indeed he less than subtly accuses Windschuttle of being akin to “Holocaust deniers who find new and more ingenious reasons to cast doubt on the death toll and who refuse to see what is obvious to everyone else” (204, 207).
Indeed, Reynolds and Windschuttle agree on very little. About the only thing that both Reynolds and Windschuttle do agree upon is that the other is an ideologue driven not by the search for truth but by some hidden agenda. ...
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Archives have been in existence since ancient times. In O’Toole and Cox’s viewpoint, the term “archives” was initially used to mean a collection of all written materials (O’Toole & Cox 1990, p.28). However, in the contemporary world, this term has had a three-fold meaning: firstly, to designate documents that have been accumulated or created by individuals or organizations in the contemporary daily execution of their mandates.
This place that later become the location of Queen Victoria Building (Modjeska, D 1989).
A two-story building was set up on the site in 1820. The Druitt street had offices to manage the market among items sold on the market included maize, wheat, green forage, vegetables, turkeys, ducks, geese, pigs, cloth and groceries.
The relationship between the mother country, Britain, and her dominion, Australia, has been and still continues as a love-hate one. And like the USA, Australia too is a nation separated from Britain "by the same language"1 a language that has evolved and accommodated delicious (for the Australian)-and to some extent prompted by a feeling of affection-invective like 'Pommie' to describe the 'native' of Britain!
Predicaments such as the experiences of convicts on board a transport before 1815 made a major role in the further development and improvement of the kind of management established and applied to convicts in the succeeding years. Accordingly, there has been a great change from the early phase to the later phase of the convict era.
Australia had been dependent on Great Britain in the period before these changes, however, the policies of the Australian government too soon changed o adapt to the changing world around it.
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The conflict over the topic started when an article by Keith Windschuttle, countering the arguments of Henry Reynolds in the article "Resistance: Tactics and Traditions", appeared in the Sidney Morning Herald, during the Olympic Games. According to the article by Windschuttle, many massacres of Aborigines in the Australian frontier were fabricated and it emphasized that the number of casualties in the frontier was far fewer than estimations 20000 casualties by Henry Reynolds in 1981.
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ade in this direction like allowing them to hunt in their allotted areas and pieces of land and helping them form a system where there was a good distribution system of power.
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Turner argues that the frontier, which at first was the Atlantic Coast before moving westward, is very different from the European frontier (Turner 1). I think the advance of the frontier with its military conquests is similar to the advancement of
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