To determine the degree of standardization of advertising practice in perfumes, apparel and cosmetics in five European countries, a research study, with the use of content analysis, was conducted by using several editions of Vogue magazine. Prior to the study, it has been recognized by Sommers and Kernan that standardization of advertisements is “possible when the product serves the same needs across culture such as beauty, love and fear” (Seitz & Johar, 1993). This is the reason why the products that will be included in the study are perfumes, cosmetics and apparel, which are all considered beauty products. The three brands of perfume covered by the study were Yves Saint Laurent “Y”, Paloma Picasso and Lancome Tresor. The apparels included were Guess, Chanel and Giorgio Armani. Helena Rubinstein, Guerlain and Lancome Definicils were the cosmetic brands included. The countries chosen for the study are Spain, Italy, France, Germany and UK because of its very diverse cultures. The different print advertisements of the said products were examined according to picture, size, color, general layout, caption and explanatory text (Seitz & Johar, 1993).
The results of the study confirmed the hypothesis that perfume advertisements were more standardized than apparel or cosmetics (Seitz & Johar, 1993). Moreover, the study also corroborated that “apparel advertisements were more localized than perfume or cosmetics” (Seitz & Johar, 1993).
The study made presents itself as a guide for European advertisers who must take into consideration the anticipated development that the different European countries will continue to merge into a single market; thus, a need to have a unified brand image (Seitz & Johar, 1993). Having standardized advertisements will benefit global companies as it would mean economies of scale in advertising expenditures. Advertisers however must