A proper drainage facility should be designed to avoid any water logging situation in the park.
The runoff from the car park will depend on the rainfall. Rainfall at a point varies significantly with change in season and occurance. Hence, it is utmost important to have sufficient information on the maximum rainfall in the area. By knowing the amount of water coming into the catchment of car park will determine the quantity of water flowing out from it. The water flowing out of the car park will also depend on the type of parking surface, water traps in the parking area and time of concentration. This will greatly influence the water flowing out to the sewers. The water coming into the parking area could be determined by use of various hydrological modelling and it is also possible to develop different scenarios of the same.
World is facing serious problems due to changing climate scenario. This change is due to unplanned use of resources and pollution caused due to the same. Changing carbon concentration in atmosphere has affected the climate system. This has also resulted in ever increasing natural disasters throughout the world in the form of earthquakes, cyclones, flood, drought, tsunami etc. The frequency of less probable extreme events has increased and the world is facing serious problems to meet MDG. ...
The frequency of less probable extreme events has increased and the world is facing serious problems to meet MDG. With globalization and technological advancement people are looking for coping mechanism to live with the shrinking resource base.
A major impact of this climate change has been on the rainfall pattern. The frequency, intensity and duration of the rainfall in many parts of the world have changed significantly in the recent past. Flash floods, acid rains and high intensity rainfall is a unique feature. Surface hydrology depends largely on the precipitation pattern, it is important to estimate forecast to reduce damage. Water harvesting is an effective way to conserve water resources.
Runoff from the parking area could be used in many ways. Normally, there is provision to collect this water and divert it into sewer for safe disposal. This water could also be used for storage and recharge purposes in the areas with less rainfall availability. Recharging of the aquifer by use of this water is a good idea. The major task while planning for these systems is to calculate the maximum rainfall for the region. Various methods are used in estimating the probable maximum rainfall for an area.
1. Construction and the use of IDF curves:
Intensity-duration-frequency curves are used in determining the intensity of rainfall. It is commonly used to calculate the value of (I) in rational method. These curves are the graphical representation of the probability of occurance of a rainfall of average intensity. The rational method illustrates a proper application of IDF curve. IDF curves should not be used to obtain storm runoff volumes. The Intensity-Duration-Frequency curve is