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Globalisation, the growth in trade and commerce amongst nations and peoples, has resulted in prosperity, mobility, and uniform standards and expectations, all made possible because of advances in human communication and information technology (Micklethwait & Wooldridge, 2000).

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This paper on recipe and menu translation begins with discussing why translation is both a science and art, and the principal issues of subjectivity in translation and interpretation, foreignisation-domestication and visibility-invisibility.
Before writing was invented, human communication was done using words or sounds. Basic communication became possible amongst people because of "language", a set of symbols that follow rules of syntax and semantics shared by those with a common cultural identity.
Language as an integral part of culture is a means to express a message and define the cultural identity of the message source along with non-verbal conventions, norms, and rules of conduct to which group members conform by virtue of their upbringing or any other process of socialisation (Snell-Hornby, 1999, 103).
Language development gives translation its important role: by allowing one culture to communicate with another, translation improves the way cultures understand and influence each other. That, at least, is the theory.
The practice is complex and challenging because in translating from one language to another, it is not easy to capture precisely different cultural identities and make the ...
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