An estimation of this profit is based on forecasts of the future taking from the investment.
The concept of enterprise and financial risk consists in the fact that the perspective decision of financial character has the stochastic nature, being hence subjective, and the degree of its objectivity depends on different factors, including accuracy of predicted dynamics of a monetary flow, the price of sources, opportunities of their reception, etc. In the basis of such estimations lay statistical data.
Any financial manager constantly faces a problem of a choice of sources of financing. The particular feature of the problem moreover consists in the fact that that service of this or that source manages to the company unequally. Each source of financing has the price, and this price can have the stochastic nature. Decisions of the financial character are as efficient as good and objective the information base is. The level of objectivity depends on in what degree the market of capitals corresponds to the effective market.
Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), the model of an estimation of profitability of financial assets, forms a theoretical basis for some various financial technologies on management of profitableness and risk, applied at long-term and intermediate term investment in stock. CAPM considers profitableness of the stock depending on behaviour of the market as a whole. Other initial assumption of CAPM consists in the fact that investors make decisions, considering only two factors: expected profitableness and risk. Though this model is the simplified representation of the financial market, it is widely used in the activity of many large investment structures, for example Merrill Lynch and Value Line.
The euphoria of researchers in the sixties and seventies about the validity of weak and medium-strong EMH has been weakened by the relatively poor empirical validation of the standard CAPM and a variety of excess returns of indexed price anomalies Even if the analytical sources of error found under (1) that relativize inefficiency are eliminated, fundamental criticism of the CAPM is still advanced1.
According to the model the risk connected with investments into any risk financial object, can be of two kinds: systematic and non-systematic. The systematic risk is caused by the general market and economic changes influencing all investment objects and not being unique for a concrete asset. Non-systematic risk is connected with the concrete issuer company.
It is impossible to reduce systematic risk, but it is possible to measure the influence of the market on the profitableness of financial assets. As a measure of systematic risk in CAPM the (Beta) parameter is used. It describes the sensitivity of a financial asset with respect to changes of market profitableness. Knowing the parameter it is possible to quantitatively estimate the value of the risk connected with price changes of all market as a whole.
The more value of a stock , the more its price rises at the general growth of the market, and on the contrary. Non-systematic risk can be reduced by means of a well-diversified portfolio. The