The categories are sorted from highest the number of occurrences to the least number of occurrences. The chart shows that Confusion (37.5%), Strain (30.0%) and Sprain (12.5%) represent 80% of the total injuries received. The rest of the injuries received such as foreign body, abrasion, punctures and others represent 20% of the total injuries received.
ii. The Pareto Chart will be used to report the sorted injuries received according to the number of occurrences. It shows that the most frequent injury received is Confusion, followed by Strain and Sprain which constitute 80% of the total injuries received. The priority will go to the vital few as compared to the trivial many.
d. A Pareto chart shows both frequency and prioritisation of qualitative data or categories. On the other hand, a pie chart identifies data in relation to the whole while a bar chart compares data relative to one issue or among individual items. It is advantageous to use a Pareto chart when comparing different causes or issues and identifying which one needs the most priority and focus.
A pie chart is useful when a report requires a display of percentages of categories that represents the whole pie. A bar chart is useful when comparing the frequency of data over time or illustrating frequency of different categories without the need of prioritisation.
e. e. The data follow the Pareto principle when it is arranged in accordance from the most frequent category to the least frequent ones. It will show vital few and the trivial many. The trivial few in the data are Confusion (75), Strain (60), and Sprain (25). It represents 37.5%, 30.0% and 12.5%, respectively, of the whole categories of injuries received. Consequently, the three injuries also signify 80% of the problems.
Question 4 - TQM Principle
a. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management philosophy that involves every person in the organisation and every phase of it operation. It employs a customer-focus definition which aims at maximising customer satisfaction. The role of management is vital in TQM such that they must be fully committed in TQM and this commitment must stream down the organisation. As for the Iron-Ore mining company, it overlooked the TQM principle that everyone must be involved. The General Manager decided on a 10% budget cut across the organisation without involving and aligning the ideas of the three section managers. Deciding on reducing the budget is a financial decision that ultimately hurts the operation of the company. TQM involves a process based approach which recognises the different contribution of each process to the whole business.
The company also ignore the importance of customer centred definition of TQM. The goal of TQM is to satisfy customer needs and requirements. A business strategy that employs TQM focuses on the demand of the customers. The Iron-Ore mining company neglected to forecast the demand of iron ore. The Railway Manager focused on the 10% reduction of budget which consequently resulted to a reduction of capacity. Such reduction of capacity became a constraint in satisfying the customer demand. If they have prioritised the 60 mtpa requirement, they would incur a lower cost per unit even if they have greater total expenditure.
Another principle of TQM involves the employment of