Nursing Models

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Nursing models are conceptual models which rely upon certain concepts and theories of nursing and "provide information about: definitions of nursing and nursing practice, principles that form the basis for practice, and goals and functions of nursing" (Wesley, 1995: 2).


Numbers of important nurse theorists such as Clara Weeks-Shaw, Isabel Hampton Robb, Imogene King, Hester Frederick, Myra Levine, Hildegard Peplau, Bertha Harmer, and Virginia Henderson contributed to the emerging discipline by describing various nursing models throughout the late 19th - late 20th centuries (Wesley, 1995).
Each model of nursing has two elements: a method to assess individual needs of the patient and a method to implement the adequate type of care. These elements are used to a document known as a 'care plan' that is employed to identify the essential characteristics of a patient's treatment by doctors, nurses or/and health professionals. The process of treatment is measured and the quality of a patient's care is evaluated with appropriate changes being done to the care plan (Polit, & Hungler, 1995).
In the 19th century, nurses were predominantly viewed as mere executors of the doctor's prescribed care. Such limited perception of the nurse's function resulted in emergence of a set of biomedical models of nursing that continue to strongly affect the modern nursing practices (Snyder, 2001). ...
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