The third need wold be the need for love and belongingness, followed by that of self-esteem and ego (Simmons, Irwin, & Drinnien, 1987). Last in this hierarchy described by Maslow would be self-actualization, which is only achieved after all the previous needs have been met.
The need for security and safety hence comes around when the physiological needs are met to a certain degree. At this point, Maslow describes man as a safety-seeking mechanism, whose outlook in life and the world, both for the present and the future, is greatly influenced by this prominent need (Maslow, 1943, p.375).
Given that the physiological needs have been met, the need for safety and security of a person in his own community is vital for an individual to then fulfill his love and belonging needs. Thus, when there is violence in a community, and a person is not confident of his own safety, then the actualization of the higher needs is hindered.
Violence in a community especially that among youths can be lessened by implementing community health interventions that aims to reduce the prevalence of its causes such as alcoholism, drug addiction, the availability of guns, poverty, lack of proper education, and the list goes on. If these interventions are successful in their goals, an individual can then focus on achieving needs of love and belonging, as other needs tend to become non-existent as long as a prevailing need is not met (Maslow, 1943).
Violence in the Community
Violence has been prevalent since probably the beginning of time and has presented a big part in the history of the world. Every year, more than a million people die violence-related deaths, and a lot more endure physical, emotional, sexual, and psychological injuries from self-inflicted, interpersonal, and collective violence (Krug et al., 2002).
Violence is "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation" as defined by the World Health Organization (Krug et al., 2002). The term intentional suggests that a person committing the act of violence is knowingly carries out this act and is conscious of the results of the act.
There are many forms of violence. The World Health Organization has subdivided violence into three typologies: self-directed violence, interpersonal violence, and collective violence (Krug et al., 2002). However, for the purpose of this paper, focus will be given to the typology of interpersonal violence, which is defined by WHO as "violence between individuals, that is subdivided into family and intimate partner violence and community violence. The former category includes child maltreatment; intimate partner violence; and elder abuse, while the latter is broken down into acquaintance and stranger violence and includes youth violence; assault by strangers; violence related to property crimes; and violence in workplaces and other institutions." (Krug et al., 2002)
Although the crime rate in America has already decreased over the past decades, the rates remain significantly high (Berman, Silverman, & Kurtines, 2000). In a study conducted by Berman, Silverman, and Kurtines, it has been revealed that in the children between first and second grade have already either been victims of violence (21%) or have been