The Force Field Analysis model defines two opposing forces acting on an organization. The driving forces push for change while the restraining forces act as a barrier for change (Falletta, 2005). To achieve the desired change, it needs to unfreeze the current state of equilibrium in an organization by adding driving forces or by eliminating restraints. Once achieved, the organization must refreeze or reestablish equilibrium. The strength of the model is its simplicity. The weakness is the assumptions that disequilibrium is expected to occur; changes occur simultaneously; and equilibrium will be reestablished.
Leavitt's Model depicts a diamond shaped model showing interdependence among four variables: structure, technology, task and people. The model illustrates an assumption that changes in one variable affect the other variables. It is similar to opposing forces of the Force Field Analysis. However, the focus is within the internal environment of the organization and excludes the effect of the external environment. (Falletta, 2005)
Likert System Analysis addresses seven organizational variables such as motivation, communication, interaction, decision-making, goal setting, control and performance (Falletta, 2005). ...
The weakness of the analysis rests on the exclusion of external environment forces that would affect the organization. The measurement also assumes independence on each level. (Falletta, 2005)
The Open Systems Theory conceptualizes an organization as a social system which is dependent on the environment they work in. The theory illustrates a repeated cycle of inputs, throughputs, outputs and renewed input with a feedback loop that connects the output and renewed inputs (Falletta, 2005).
Weisbord's Six-Box Model follows the open systems theory. The model illustrates six variables in an organization such as purposes, structure, relationships, leadership, rewards and helpful mechanisms. The model also identifies two management systems - formal and informal systems, which are crucial to the effectiveness of an organization. The strength of the model lies on the assumption that the external environment has great influence through the organizational inputs and outputs. The model also takes into consideration the suitability of an organization to its environment. However, the model does not make any direct causal statement regarding the interconnections between variables. (Falletta, 2005)
The Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model also follows the open systems theory that assumes an organization as a dynamic, open social system within a larger environment where behavior occurs at the levels of an individual, a group and the whole system. As with Weisbord's model, it takes into account the formal and informal systems. The strength of the model lies on the consideration of the interaction and congruence between the individuals, group and system. The external