In the following paper we focus on, "the radical changes that took place in the political platform of Mexico and the people who were responsible to bring about those changes, at the end of eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century."
By the end of the eighteenth century, Mexico, known as New Spain was governed under the viceroyalty of Spanish authority for around three hundred years and was one of the most densely populated areas of North America. In the overheated military activities at the end of eighteenth century, Spain suffered a number of military defeats in Europe and the Spanish monarchy determined to sort out ways to improve the defenses of its empire. To provide the treasury with large funds which can ultimately help in building up a stronger defense mechanism, the monarchy of Spain decided to revise the structure of taxes collected from New Spain. There were also serious administrative changes undertaken to check the growing amount of corruption in the bureaucratic system.
The Bourbon reforms were implemented primarily to generate revenues for the improvements in military strengths of Spain. However it also attempted to check the inefficiency of local administration as well as to reduce the increasing cases of corruption in the bureaucracy of its colonial governments. In 1778 significant reforms were established which resulted into a loosening of the laws framed for colonial trade with other American colonies. This was aimed to help the colonist develop better trades with other colonies in the North American region and generate funds which could help in maintain a large army. In the administrative mechanism of the colony, reforms were introduced aiming at centralizing the powers of government and placing the Peninsulares (individuals with Spanish birth and upbringing) at important administrative positions. The strength of the colonial armies, which can be deployed elsewhere to check emergencies and prevent the demobilization of Spanish forces, were considerably increased and local militia were reinforced.
New taxes were imposed upon the Mexican masses and this was largely unwelcomed by the public with cases of denial of tax. The forceful efforts to bring about reforms and collect taxes resulted in increased grievances against the government and ultimately resulting in disordered conditions like riots and the antigovernment protests. The efforts by Spain to strengthen its political hold over the colony with the administrative changes was fiercely opposed by the Mexicans and these protests were efficiently popularized by the Criollos (the Spanish Mexicans who were born and brought up in Mexico) as they were now excluded from the administrative positions in viceroyalty. The economic prosperity which the Spanish had achieved generated resentment against it and the Mexicans increasingly felt that if provided with independence and allowed to control their own economic affairs, they would benefit more out of this business.
The Development of Aggression
The monarchy of Spain considered the church to be an economic and political rival as it had cumulated large amount of wealth and exercised great power on the society with the system of education at its control . With intentions