After World War I, the United States became a renewal of economic growth, from new inventions to growth of an expanding road infrastructure.
This economic growth helped accelerate the need for the automobile. The automobile industry grew quickly because of many innovative inventions. In the 1950's innovation was getting greater speed through the design of more powerful engines. In the 1960's innovation was building a sleek but performance driven auto. In the 1970's, the automobile and gas shortage led many automakers to look for innovative ways to control emission and decrease gas consumption. The convergence of computer and auto industries helped improve gas mileage and cut down on emission. The last 25 years of the car industry has seen technical and design advances that increased standardization, platform sharing, and CAD design. Body styles have changed to include the hatchback, minivan and sport utility vehicle (Consumer Guide p 10).
Automotive engines are called internal combustion (IC) engine because the fuel that runs them is burned internally, or inside the engines. There are two types, reciprocating and rotary. Reciprocating means moving up and down, or back and forth. Almost all automotive engines are of the reciprocating type. In these engines, pistons moves up and down, or reciprocate, in cylinders. This type of engine is called piston engine. Rotary engines have rotors that spin, or rotate. The only such engine now used in automobiles is the Wankel engine.
1 )Types of Engine System:
1.1 Car Engine:
The main function of a car's engine is to make it move. Engines come in a range of strengths as well as speeds. All recent engines are made of vital parts.
Car engines are built around cylinders (generally something from 2-12 of them, however usually 4, 6 or 8) in which the fuel is burnt. Super-strong metal and sealed shut, arte used to make these cylinders however at one end open and closes exactly like bicycle pumps: these consist of tight-fitting pistons (plungers) that may slide up as well as down in them. At the top of every cylinder, there are two valves. The inlet valve permits fuel as well as air to go into the cylinder; the outlet valve lets the exhaust gases loose. At the very top of the cylinder, a sparking plug (or spark plug) is present, this is a device which is controlled electrically as well as makes a spark to put fire to the fuel. At the base of the cylinder, the piston is connected to a continually turning axle that is known as a crankshaft. The crankshaft's function is to powers up the gearbox of the car which then drives the wheels. The capacity of an engine function is depends on the power or the horse power that it develops. This in turn is reliant on the ability of the engine.
In 1892, Rudolph Diesel, a German engineer developed the "diesel" engine. Unlike the gasoline engine, the diesel engine is capable of spontaneous combustion of liquid fuel without requiring spark ignition. "The key advantage of the diesel engine over the gasoline engine is its fuel economy as well as durability" (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diesel_engine).
Known as a "workhorse" the diesel engine became the engine of choice for heavy construction machinery, mining