The Mandate of Palestine of 1922 was borne out of the colonial designs of the British and French on the Middle East. Britain acquired Palestine, the Transjordan and Iraq, while France got Syria. It also embodied the promises these two European powers made to the Arabs and the Zionists, which eventually led to conflict. British encouragement of Zionist actions during the early years of the mandate led to increasing conflict between the Jewish immigrants and their Arab neighbors. As the Second World War loomed and the British recognized the importance of Arab support, they shifted their favors towards the Arabs at the expense of the Jewish communities who were now concentrated in fortified strongholds. As violence increased, the British decided to abandon Palestine, leaving the settlement of the Jewish question among the Zionists and Arabs. The French did not want to hand over power to the Muslims of Syria in a manner that they may be thought of giving up their traditional policy of protecting the Christians of the Levant. Urban populations and those of the educated Syrian elite were also demanding that Syria become independent and that Lebanon, Palestine, Transjordan, aside from the Druze and Alawite districts, become part of it. Rebels among the Druze and the nationalists led to open hostilities which did not subside until 1927.
The 1952 Egyptian Revolution o...
Although the king tried to institute land redistribution and other forms of reform, corruption became the main cause for the failure of his measures. Among the reasons that led to the revolution was the failed Palestine Campaign of 1948 which convinced the leaders that Farouk I was inefficient and corrupt. From 1917 to 1949, Israel occupied 78% of lands in Palestine, which was then administered by Great Britain under a League of Nations mandate. Israeli occupation led to the eviction of 750,000 Arab refugees to the Gaza Strip, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and other Arab countries. This led to Egypt's campaign against Israel in 1948 which ended in failure because of a corrupt and ineffectual government. General Neguib became commander-in-chief, president and prime minister after Farouk's abdication. Nasser was his Minister of the Interior. However, young officers in the army saw Neguib as too moderate. This resulted in his retirement and Nasser then succeeded him as prime minister in 1954. He became Egypt's president seven months later. Nasser was popular with young officers since many were recruited by him into the Free Officers movement during World War II. His republican views also attracted a large following. Increasing sympathy and concern over the plight of Palestinian Arabs who were forced to seek refuge in neighboring countries, and Nasser's espousal of Arab independence, also increased his popularity among the people and military. Most important in this period was his advocacy of liberating Palestine from Jewish occupation. His policy of Arab independence also challenged British authority, which gave him widespread support. Egypt had long endured British