The first elected president of Togo is Sylvanus Olympio on the elections of 1960 by beating Nicolas Grunitizky, the candidate supported by France. On January 13, 1963, the Olympio government is reversed by a military putsch organized by Nicolas Grunitizky and Etienne Gnassingb Eyadema then simple sergeant. After the assassination of Olympio, Grunitizky proclaims president. Its reign will be short, because in 1967 he is relieved by Gnassingb Eyadema who decided to seize power himself. His dictatorial attitude common to many African dirigants enables him to direct the country during 38 years he dies on February 5, 2005, which will enable him to dispute to Fidel Castro the title of "dictator longest in activity". The current president is the son of the former dictator Faure Gnassinbe, having taken the capacity after "elections".
From an economic point of view Togo is one of the poorest countries of Africa. The situation could however have been different. The beginnings of the Eyadema reign of were lucky as well on the political than the economical point of view. It is unfortunately an economy made a long time of corruption, amateurism and improvisations. All the models were copied with more or less failure. From the "Chinese" economical plans, without any budgetary provision, to the Israeli co-operative plan, a common point characterizes all its stages: the absence of long-term prospect and ideological or theoretical bases. In 1967 the new port stimulated the economy, the extraction of phosphate had just been grinds and the modest industrialization still started by the first president seemed to succeed. The courses of the cocoa and the coffee were excellent. During 19 years Togo will know a certain stability period and even a relative prosperity because of very great phosphate resources (4th world producer, the resources are exploited by alien companies which pay a royalty to the Togolese government). However at the end of 1982, the country is in crisis and strongly involves in debt. President does not have other choices than respect the conditions of the experts of the International Monetary International Monetary Fund as well as the World Bank and France," The purse being empty".
Alas as it is current in African countries, measurements are awkwardly applied with the result that the economic situation of the country is not improved on the contrary. The agricultural revolution for example starts by the president is by a failure, until our days Togo is still not self-sufficing in food goods. It is a result which however was foreseeable; it is indeed foolish to think that one can make pass directly to tractor a farmer who, all its life, ever uses hoe and machete without any preliminary formation. Hundreds of tractors were thus bought while the hangars where they would have being preserves had not been even built.
The only positive point of this revolution was a considerable increase in the cotton production, from 1959 to 1989 the production increased: 2000 to 40000 tons.
The industrialization or rather the attempt at industrialization of the country was quite as catastrophic. Until the phosphates boom of the country followed a careful course of industrialization which really succeeded, however later the president launched out in a series of useless and very expensive projects which