In fact, according to American Lung Association (2007), approximately five (5) million pneumonia cases occur annually; the cause of almost 55 million days (Kochanek & Smith, 2002) of restricted activity, as well as 1.3 million hospitalizations each year. Furthermore, inpatient treatment for pneumonia (Niederman, 1998) amounts to more than $7.5 billion annually. Roark (2003) added that this disease is the second most widespread nosocomial infection. As of 2003, the annual incidence reached up to five to 10 cases in every 1,000 admissions and can further lead into mechanical ventilation for 48 hours or more, duration of hospital stay, worsening of underlying illness as well as presence of co-morbidities. Previous antibiotic use prior to the onset of nosocomial pneumonia elevates the likelihood of infection, particularly with those virulent organisms like Acinetobacter sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Conventional preventive measures against nosocomial pneumonia take account of the patients' decreasing aspiration, proper disinfection/sterilization of devices used in respiratory-therapy, use of effective vaccines against particular infections, avoiding cross contamination via hands of personnel and health education among patients and hospital staff. New measures under investigation involve reducing oropharyngeal and gastric colonization.
Collaboration among ...Show more