The major activity of the IPCC is to prepare in regular intervals comprehensive and up-to-date assessments of policy-relevant scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of human induced climate change, potential impacts of climate change and options for mitigation and adaptation. The First Assessment Report was completed in 1990, the Second Assessment Report in 1995 and the Third Assessment Report in 2001. The reports cover the following aspects of climate change:
The IPCC have taken several options for reducing greenhouse gas emission. Sectors/ applications covered are refrigeration, stationary, and mobile air conditioning, foams, medical aerosols, fire protections, non medical aerosols, solvents and HFC-23 by products emission. Gases covered are CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, PFCs, methyl-bromide. Emission reduction options included CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, PFCs containment, recovery, recycling, destruction, alternative fluids (no GWP) and reduction from indirect emission from energy use. (IPCC/TEAP, 2005).
Countries who are party to the Kyoto protocol are obliged to regularly report their emissions and policies to the Secretariat of the Convention. The baseline against which growth or reduction of aggregate emissions are to be measured for most of the parties are the sum of the 1990 emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O, and the 1995 emissions of the F-gases (HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). The target emission is the average annual emission in the period 2008-2012-the so-called first commitment period (CERs). Countries are obliged to make national inventories of their emissions and to report on the reductions or changes achieved.
The US is committed to cut the nation's greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent through 2012. In the last three years, the United States has launched a series of bilateral and multilateral initiatives to cooperate with both developing and industrialized countries in adopting new energy sources, from cleaner use of coal, to hydrogen vehicles, to solar and wind power, to the production of clean-burning methane, to less-polluting power plants (US, 2005). Besides coordinating and integrating scientific research on global change and climate change sponsored by 13 participating departments and agencies, the Climate Change Technology Program is responsible for accelerating climate-related technology research and development.
The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom has set itself the challenging target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below 1990 levels by